Shear-free turbulence generated from an oscillating grid in a water tank impinging on an impermeable surface at varying Reynolds number 74 ≤ Re(l) ≤ 570 was studied experimentally, where the Reynolds number is defined based on the root-mean-square (r.m.s) horizontal velocity and the integral length scale. A particular focus was paid to the turbulence characteristics for low Re(l) < 150 to investigate the minimum limit of Re l obeying the profiles of rapid distortion theory. The measurements taken at near base included the r.m.s turbulent velocities, evolution of isotropy, integral length scales, and energy spectra. Statistical analysis of the velocity data showed that the anisotropic turbulence structure follows the theory for flows with Re(l) ≥ 117. At low Re(l) < 117, however, the turbulence profile deviated from the prediction where no amplification of horizontal velocity components was observed and the vertical velocity components were seen to be constant towards the tank base. Both velocity components sharply decreased towards zero at a distance of ≈ 1/3 of the integral length scale above the base due to viscous damping. The lower limit where Re(l) obeys the standard profile was found to be within the range 114 ≤ Re(l) ≤ 116.
In this study, a new magnetorheological (MR) grease was made featuring plate-like carbonyl iron (CI) particles, and its magnetic field-dependent rheological properties were experimentally characterized. The plate-like CI particles were prepared through high-energy ball milling of spherical CI particles. Then, three different ratios of the CI particles in the MR grease, varying from 30 to 70 wt% were mixed by dispersing the plate-like CI particles into the grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. The magnetic field-dependent rheological properties of the plate-like CI particle-based MR grease were then investigated using a rheometer by changing the magnetic field intensity from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature. The measurement was undertaken at two different modes, namely, a continuous shear mode and oscillation mode. It was shown that both the apparent viscosity and storage modulus of the MR grease were heavily dependent on the magnetic field intensity as well as the CI particle fraction. In addition, the differences in the yield stress and the MR effect between the proposed MR grease featuring the plate-like CI particles and the existing MR grease with the spherical CI particles were investigated and discussed in detail.
Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
The transient response of magnetorheological (MR) materials, in general, is very important for design consideration in MR-based devices. Better response to magnetic fields is beneficial for a better response rate to the electrical current applied in the electromagnetic coil. As a result, MR-based devices would have a high response to external stimuli. In this work, the principal characteristics of magnetorheological greases (MRGs) which have two different particle shapes are experimentally investigated. One type of particle distributed in the grease medium is conventional spherical-shaped carbonyl iron (CI) particles, while the other is plate-like CI particles made using a high-energy rotary ball mill from spherical CI particles. A set of bidisperse MRG samples are firstly prepared by adjusting the weight percentage of the plate-like CI particles and mixing with the spherical CI particles. Subsequently, three important properties of MRGs in terms of their practical application are measured and compared between the two different particle shapes. The field-dependent apparent viscoelastic properties of the prepared MRG samples are measured, followed by the field-dependent storage and loss moduli using an oscillatory shear rheometer. In addition, the transient response time, which indicates the speed in the actuating period of MRGs, is measured by changing the strain amplitude. Then, a comparative assessment on the three properties are undertaken between two different particle shapes by presenting the corresponding results in the same plot. It is shown that the bidisperse MRG with plate-like CI particles exhibits an increase in the initial apparent viscosity as well as stiffness property compared to the MRG with spherical particles only.
This paper describes a system using lensed optical fiber sensors that are arranged in the form of two orthogonal projections. The sensors are placed around a process vessel for upstream and downstream measurements. The purpose of the system is for on-line monitoring of particles and droplets being conveyed by a fluid. The lenses were constructed using a custom heating fixture. The fixture enables the lenses to be constructed with similar radii resulting in identical characteristics with minimum differences in transmitted intensity and emission angle. By collimating radiation from two halogen bulbs, radiation can be obtained by the sensors with radiation intensity related to the nature of the media. Each sensor interrogates a finite section of the measurement section. Each sensor provides a view. Parallel sensors provide a projection. Signal processing is carried out on the measured data in the time and frequency domains to investigate the latent information present in the flow signals.
In this article, an approximate analytical solution of flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall is presented. The solution is obtained through the use of a powerful method known as Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). We obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless velocity and temperature for various parameters. The influence and effect of different parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, friction factor, and rate of heat transfer are presented graphically. We also compared our solution with those obtained by other methods and it is found that OHAM solution is better than the other methods considered. This shows that OHAM is reliable for use to solve strongly nonlinear problems in heat transfer phenomena.
Engineering rubber composites have been widely used as main components in many fields including vehicle engineering and biomedical applications. However, when a rubber composite surface area is exposed to heat or sunlight and over a long-term accelerated exposure and lifecycle of test, the rubber becomes hard, thus influencing the mechanical and rheological behavior of the materials. Therefore, in this study, the deterioration of rheological characteristics particularly the phase shift angle (δ) of silicone rubber (SR) based magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is investigated under the effect of thermal aging. SR-MRE with 60 wt% of CIPs is fabricated and subjected to a continuous temperature of 100 °C for 72 h. The characterization of SR-MRE before and after thermal aging related to hardness, micrograph, and rheological properties are characterized using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) and a rheometer, respectively. The results demonstrated that the morphological analysis has a rough surface and more voids occurred after the thermal aging. The hardness and the weight of the SR-MRE before and after thermal aging were slightly different. Nonetheless, the thermo-rheological results showed that the stress-strain behavior have changed the phase-shift angle (δ) of SR-MRE particularly at a high strain. Moreover, the complex mechanism of SR-MRE before and after thermal aging can be observed through the changes of the 'in-rubber structure' under rheological properties. Finally, the relationship between the phase-shift angle (δ) and the in-rubber structure due to thermal aging are discussed thoroughly which led to a better understanding of the thermo-rheological behavior of SR-MRE.
Oscillatory and steady shear rheology of gellan (G) and dextran (D) solution individually, and in blends (G/D ratio 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 w/v) with a total hydrocolloid concentration of 3 % (w/v) were studied at 25 °C. Individually, 1.5 % dextran and 1.5 % gellan in solution exhibited Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior, respectively. A blend of equal proportion of dextran and gellan (G/D = 1:1) exhibits a distinct gel point (G' = G″), and further addition of dextran in the blend (G/D = 1:2 and 1:3) resulted predominating liquid-like (G″ > G') behavior. A plot of G' vs G″ distinctly showed the gradual transition of the blend. Shear stress (τ)-shear rate ([Formula: see text]) data fitted well the Herschel-Bulkley model. The G/D blend exhibited shear thinning behavior with flow behavior index less than unity. The Cox-Merz rule did not fit well for the complex shear viscosity (η*) and apparent viscosity (η) of the blend.
The major aim of this research was to investigate the addition of BPSC on the physical and rheological properties of asphalt binder. In this study, addition of five different percentages of BPSC compositions were studied, namely (2, 4, 6 and 8%). The impact of modifier on the rheological and physical properties was determined using conventional tests, such as softening point, ductility and penetration, and measurements from a dynamic shear rheometer. Based on the results, it was observed that the addition of BPSC has a significant impact on the rheological properties of asphalt binder and would improve rutting resistance at high temperatures. Meanwhile, results related to physical properties indicated that a decrease in penetration and increase in softening points results in stiffness of BPSC. The results showed that BPSC reduced temperature susceptibility and increased stiffness and elastic behaviour in comparison to unmodified asphalt binder. This means BPSC would increase the resistance of permanent deformation (rutting). Finally, BPSC could be considered as an appropriate additive to modify the properties of asphalt binder.
Nanocomposite materials have distinctive potential for various types of captivating usage in drilling fluids as a well-designed solution for the petroleum industry. Owing to the improvement of drilling fluids, it is of great importance to fabricate unique nanocomposites and advance their functionalities for amplification in base fluids. There is a rising interest in assembling nanocomposites for the progress of rheological and filtration properties. A series of drilling fluid formulations have been reported for graphene-derived nanocomposites as additives. Over the years, the emergence of these graphene-derived nanocomposites has been employed as a paradigm to formulate water-based drilling fluids (WBDF). Herein, we provide an overview of nanocomposites evolution as engineered materials for enhanced rheological attributes in drilling operations. We also demonstrate the state-of-the-art potential graphene-derived nanocomposites for enriched rheology and other significant properties in WBDF. This review could conceivably deliver the inspiration and pathways to produce novel fabrication of nanocomposites and the production of other graphenaceous materials grafted nanocomposites for the variety of drilling fluids.
Synthetic materials that are capable of healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their
many potential applications. Here, new healing chemically cross-linked hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
(pHEMA) was prepared. The healing hydrogel was achieved by heating above its glass transition (Tg
). The intermolecular
diffusion of dangling chain and the chain slippage led to healing of the gel. The peaks in attenuated total reflectance
(ATR) confirmed that hydrogel was formed while rheological studies had determined the minimum for healing temperature
C. The results showed that ratio stress of the healable hydrogel can reach until 92 and 91% of first and second
healing cycle, respectively. The morphology of the sample was carried out to evaluate the self-property of hydrogel.
β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) can produce fibrils that have multi-functional properties. Impacts of different stirring speeds on characteristics of β-lg fibrils as a stable form in β-lg fibril solutions were investigated. Fibril concentration, fibril morphology, turbidity, particle size distribution, zeta potential, and rheological behavior of solutions were studied. Stirring enhanced fibril formation and stability of a fibril solution, in comparison with unstirred solutions. Increasing the stirring speed produced more turbidity and a greater distribution of particle sizes, higher viscosity values, but no differences in zeta potential values of β-lg fibril solutions. However, a high stirring speed is not feasible due to reduction of the fibril yield and changes in fibril morphology.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification and drying methods on the viscoelastic behaviour and rheological properties of durian seed gum. The results indicated that the purified gum A (using isopropanol and ethanol) and D (using hydrochloric acid and ethanol) showed the highest and lowest viscosity, respectively. Four drying techniques included oven drying (105 °C), freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum oven drying. In the present work, all purified gums exhibited more elastic (gel-like) behaviour than the viscous (liquid-like) behaviour (G″
Three-dimensional scaled-up transparent models of three human cystic ducts were prepared on the basis of anatomical specimens. The measurement of pressure drop across the cystic duct models and visualization of the flow structures within these ducts were performed at conditions replicating the physiological state. The flow visualization study confirmed the laminar nature of the flow of bile inside the cystic duct and values of pressure drop coefficient (Cp) decreased as the Reynolds number (Re) increased. The three tested models showed comparable behavior for the curve of Reynolds number versus the pressure drop coefficient. The results show that the tested cystic ducts have both increased pressure drop and complicated flow structures when compared with straight conduits. High resistance in a cystic duct may indicate that the gallbladder has to exert large force in expelling bile to the cystic duct. For patients with diseased gallbladder, and even in healthy persons, gallbladder is known to stiffen with age and it may lose its compliance or flexibility. A high resistance cystic duct coupled with a stiffened gallbladder may result in prolonged stasis of bile in the gallbladder, which is assumed to encourage the formation of gallstones.
Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1-5) were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP) of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C) and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI) increased for the ester's synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5), while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid.
Taking into account the effect of constant convective thermal and mass boundary conditions, we present numerical solution of the 2-D laminar g-jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of water-based nanofluids. The governing transport equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically by an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization technique. The skin friction decreases with time, buoyancy ratio, and thermophoresis parameters while it increases with frequency, mixed convection and Brownian motion parameters. Heat transfer rate decreases with time, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusion-convection parameters while it increases with the Reynolds number, frequency, mixed convection, buoyancy ratio and conduction-convection parameters. Mass transfer rate decreases with time, frequency, thermophoresis, conduction-convection parameters while it increases with mixed convection, buoyancy ratio, diffusion-convection and Brownian motion parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on this topic and hence the results are new. We believe that the results will be useful in designing and operating thermal fluids systems for space materials processing. Special cases of the results have been compared with published results and an excellent agreement is found.
Ascorbic acid was used for the first time to synthesize cellulose nanoparticles (CNP) extracted from okra mucilage. The physical properties of the CNP including their size distribution, and crystalline structures were investigated. The rheological properties of the cellulose nanofluid (CNF) were compared with the bulk okra mucilage and commercial polymer xanthan. The interfacial properties of the CNF at the interface of oil-water (O/W) system were investigated at different concentrations and temperatures. The effects of the interaction between the electrolyte and ultrasonic were determined. Core flooding experiment was conducted at reservoir condition to justify the effect of the flow behaviour and disperse phase behaviour of CNF on additional oil recovery. The performance of the CNF was compared to conventional EOR chemical. The combined method of ultrasonic, weak-acid hydrolysis and nanoprecipitation were effective in producing spherical and polygonal nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 100 nm, increased yield of 51% and preserved crystallinity respectively. The zeta potential result shows that the CNF was stable, and the surface charge signifies long term stability of the fluid when injected into oil field reservoirs. The CNF, okra and xanthan exhibited shear-thinning and pseudoplastic behaviour. The IFT decreased with increase in concentration of CNF, electrolyte and temperature. The pressure drop data confirmed the stability of CNF at 120°C and the formation of oil bank was enough to increase the oil recovery by 20%. CNF was found to be very effective in mobilizing residual oil at high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) reservoir condition. The energy and cost estimations have shown that investing in ultrasonic-assisted weak-acid hydrolysis is easier, cost-effective, and can reduce energy consumption making the method economically advantageous compared to conventional methods.
In this study, series of non-ionic surfactants from Span and Tween are evaluated for their ability to affect the viscosity profile of cyclopentane hydrate slurry. The surfactants; Span 20, Span 40, Span 80, Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 80 were selected and tested to provide different hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance values and allow evaluation their solubility impact on hydrate formation and growth time. The study was performed by using a HAAKE ViscotesterTM 500 at 2 °C and a surfactant concentration ranging from 0.1 wt%-1 wt%. The solubility characteristic of the non-ionic surfactants changed the hydrate slurry in different ways with surfactants type and varying concentration. The rheological measurement suggested that oil-soluble Span surfactants was generally inhibitive to hydrate formation by extending the hydrate induction time. However, an opposite effect was observed for the Tween surfactants. On the other hand, both Span and Tween demonstrated promoting effect to accelerate hydrate growth time of cyclopentane hydrate formation. The average hydrate crystallization growth time of the blank sample was reduced by 86% and 68% by Tween and Span surfactants at 1 wt%, respectively. The findings in this study are useful to understand the rheological behavior of surfactants in hydrate slurry.
Determination of the thermal characteristics and temperature-dependent rheological properties of the magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) is of paramount importance particularly with regards to MRE applications. Hitherto, a paucity of temperature dependent analysis has been conducted by MRE researchers. In this study, an investigation on the thermal and rheological properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-based MREs was performed. Various percentages of carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) were blended with the ENR compound using a two roll-mill for the preparation of the ENR-based MRE samples. The morphological, elemental, and thermal analyses were performed before the rheological test. Several characterizations, as well as the effects of the strain amplitude, temperature, and magnetic field on the rheological properties of ENR-based MRE samples, were evaluated. The micrographs and elemental results were well-correlated regarding the CIP and Fe contents, and a uniform distribution of CIPs was achieved. The results of the thermal test indicated that the incorporation of CIPs enhanced the thermal stability of the ENR-based MREs. Based on the rheological analysis, the storage modulus and loss factor were dependent on the CIP content and strain amplitude. The effect of temperature on the rheological properties revealed that the stiffness of the ENR-based MREs was considered stable, and they were appropriate to be employed in the MRE devices exposed to high temperatures above 45 °C.