Many people suffer from myopia or hyperopia due to the refractive errors of the cornea all over the world. The use of high refractive index (RI), Abbe number (νd), and visible light transmittance (T%) polymeric contact lenses (CLs) holds great promise in vision error treatment as an alternative solution to the irreversible laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been suggested as a good candidate to rise the RI and maintain high transparency of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-TiO2 nanocomposite. This work includes a preparation of TiO2 NPs using the sol gel method as well as a synthesis of pure PMMA by free radical polarization and PMMA-TiO2 CLs using a cast molding method of 0.005 and 0.01 w/v concentrations and a study of their effect on the aberrated human eye. ZEMAX optical design software was used for eye modeling based on the Liou and Brennan eye model and then the pure and doped CLs were applied. Ocular performance was evaluated by modulation transfer function (MTF), spot diagram, and image simulation. The used criteria show that the best vision correction was obtained by the CL of higher doping content (p < 0.0001) and that the generated spherical and chromatic aberrations in the eye had been reduced.
Graphene (Gr)/gold (Au) and graphene-oxide (GO)/Au nanocomposites (NCPs) were synthesized by performing pulsed-laser-induced photolysis (PLIP) on hydrogen peroxide and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) that coexisted with Gr or GO in an aqueous solution. A 3-month-long aqueous solution stability was observed in the NCPs synthesized without using surfactants and additional processing. The synthesized NCPs were characterized using absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to prove the existence of hybrid Gr/Au or GO/Au NCPs. The synthesized NCPs were further evaluated using the photocatalytic reaction of methylene blue (MB), a synthetic dye, under UV radiation, visible light (central wavelength of 470 nm), and full spectrum of solar light. Both Gr/Au and GO/Au NCPs exhibited photocatalytic degradation of MB under solar light illumination with removal efficiencies of 92.1% and 94.5%, respectively.
The utilization of metal-oxide nanoparticles in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has generated considerable research interest to increase the oil recovery. Among these nanoparticles, alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) have proved promising in improving the oil recovery mechanism due to their prominent thermal properties. However, more significantly, these nanoparticles, coupled with electromagnetic (EM) waves, can be polarized to reduce water/oil mobility ratio and create disturbances at the oil/nanofluid interface, so that oil can be released from the reservoir rock surfaces and travelled easily to the production well. Moreover, alumina exists in various transition phases (γ, δ, θ, κ, β, η, χ), providing not only different sizes and morphologies but phase-dependent dielectric behavior at the applied EM frequencies. In this research, the oil recovery mechanism under EM fields of varying frequencies was investigated, which involved parameters such as mobility ratio, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability. The displacement tests were conducted in water-wet sandpacks at 95 °C, by employing crude oil from Tapis. Alumina nanofluids (Al2O3-NFs) of four different phases (α, κ, θ and γ) and particle sizes (25-94.3 nm) were prepared by dispersing 0.01 wt. % NPs in brine (3 wt. % NaCl) together with SDBS as a dispersant. Three sequential injection scenarios were performed in each flooding scheme: (i) preflushes brine as a secondary flooding, (ii) conventional nano/EM-assisted nanofluid flooding, and (iii) postflushes brine to flush NPs. Compared to conventional nanofluid flooding (3.03-11.46% original oil in place/OOIP) as incremental oil recovery, EM-assisted nanofluid flooding provided an increase in oil recovery by approximately 4.12-12.90% of OOIP for different phases of alumina. It was established from these results that the recovery from EM-assisted nanofluid flooding is itself dependent on frequency, which is associated with good dielectric behavior of NPs to formulate the oil recovery mechanism including (i) mobility ratio improvement due to an electrorheological (ER) effect, (ii) interfacial disturbances by the oil droplet deformation, and (iii) wettability alteration by increased surface-free energy.
Acyclovir is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection. Its oral bioavailability is low; therefore, frequent and high doses are prescribed for optimum therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, the current therapeutic regimen of acyclovir is associated with unwarranted adverse effects, hence prompting the need for a suitable drug carrier to overcome these limitations. This study aimed to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as acyclovir carriers and evaluate their in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters to prove the study hypothesis. During the SLN development process, response surface methodology was exploited to optimize the composition of solid lipid and surfactant. Optimum combination of Biogapress Vegetal 297 ATO and Tween 80 was found essential to produce SLNs of 134 nm. The oral bioavailability study showed that acyclovir-loaded SLNs possessed superior oral bioavailability when compared with the commercial acyclovir suspension. The plasma concentration of acyclovir-loaded SLNs was four-fold higher than the commercial suspension. Thus, this investigation presented promising results that the method developed for encapsulation of acyclovir offers potential as an alternative pathway to enhance the drug's bioavailability. In conclusion, this study exhibited the feasibility of SLNs as an oral delivery vehicle for acyclovir and therefore represents a new promising therapeutic concept of acyclovir treatment via a nanoparticulate drug delivery system.
A new micro heat exchanger was analyzed using numerical formulation of conjugate heat transfer for single-phase fluid flow across copper microchannels. The flow across bent channels harnesses asymmetric laminar flow and dean vortices phenomena for heat transfer enhancement. The single-channel analysis was performed to select the bent channel aspect ratio by varying width and height between 35-300 μm for Reynolds number and base temperature magnitude range of 100-1000 and 320-370 K, respectively. The bent channel results demonstrate dean vortices phenomenon at the bend for Reynolds number of 500 and above. Thermal performance factor analysis shows an increase of 18% in comparison to straight channels of 200 μm width and height. Alumina nanoparticles at 1% and 3% concentration enhance the Nusselt number by an average of 10.4% and 23.7%, respectively, whereas zirconia enhances Nusselt number by 16% and 33.9% for same concentrations. On the other hand, thermal performance factor analysis shows a significant increase in pressure drop at high Reynolds number with 3% particle concentration. Using zirconia for nanofluid, Nusselt number of the bent multi-channel model is improved by an average of 18% for a 3% particle concentration as compared to bent channel with deionized water.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers show a relatively higher in vivo degradation rate compared to other PHAs, thus, they receive a great deal of attention for a wide range of medical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with poorly water-soluble anticancer drug docetaxel (DCX) were produced using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB-co-4HB), copolymers biosynthesised from Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 isolated from the Malaysian environment. Three copolymers with different molar proportions of 4-hydroxybutirate (4HB) were used: 16% (PHB16), 30% (PHB30) and 70% (PHB70) 4HB-containing P(3HB-co-4HB). Blank and DCX-loaded nanoparticles were then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Preformulation studies showed that an optimised formulation could be achieved through the emulsification/solvent evaporation method using PHB70 with the addition of 1.0% PVA, as stabilizer and 0.03% VitE-TPGS, as surfactant. DCX-loaded PHB70 nanoparticles (DCX-PHB70) gave the desired particle size distribution in terms of average particle size around 150 nm and narrow particle size distribution (polydispersity index (PDI) below 0.100). The encapsulation efficiency result showed that at 30% w/w drug-to-polymer ratio: DCX- PHB16 NPs were able to encapsulate up to 42% of DCX; DCX-PHB30 NPs encapsulated up to 46% of DCX and DCX-PHB70 NPs encapsulated up to 50% of DCX within the nanoparticle system. Approximately 60% of DCX was released from the DCX-PHB70 NPs within 7 days for 5%, 10% and 20% of drug-to-polymer ratio while for the 30% and 40% drug-to-polymer ratios, an almost complete drug release (98%) after 7 days of incubation was observed.
Nanocomposite materials have distinctive potential for various types of captivating usage in drilling fluids as a well-designed solution for the petroleum industry. Owing to the improvement of drilling fluids, it is of great importance to fabricate unique nanocomposites and advance their functionalities for amplification in base fluids. There is a rising interest in assembling nanocomposites for the progress of rheological and filtration properties. A series of drilling fluid formulations have been reported for graphene-derived nanocomposites as additives. Over the years, the emergence of these graphene-derived nanocomposites has been employed as a paradigm to formulate water-based drilling fluids (WBDF). Herein, we provide an overview of nanocomposites evolution as engineered materials for enhanced rheological attributes in drilling operations. We also demonstrate the state-of-the-art potential graphene-derived nanocomposites for enriched rheology and other significant properties in WBDF. This review could conceivably deliver the inspiration and pathways to produce novel fabrication of nanocomposites and the production of other graphenaceous materials grafted nanocomposites for the variety of drilling fluids.
Efficient machining of the polyester nanocomposite components requires a better understanding of machinability characteristics of such material, which has become an urgent requirement for modern industrial production. In this research, the micro-milling of polyester/halloysite nano-clay (0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.0 wt%) nanocomposites were carried out and the outcomes in terms of tool wear, cutting force, the size effect, surface morphology, and surface roughness were compared with those for plain polyester. In order to accomplish the machining of the material in ductile mode, the required feed per tooth was found to be below 0.3 µm. The degree of surface breakage was also found to decrease in ductile mode. A maximum flank wear VB of 0.012 mm after removing 196 mm3 of workpiece material was measured.
Carbon nanotube-quicklime nanocomposites (CQNs) have been synthesized via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of n-hexane using a nickel metal catalyst supported on calcined carbonate stones at temperatures of 600-900 °C. The use of a Ni/CaO(10 wt%) catalyst required temperatures of at least 700 °C to obtain XRD peaks attributable to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CQNs prepared using a Ni/CaO catalyst of various Ni contents showed varying diameters and the remaining catalyst metal particles could still be observed in the samples. Thermogravimetric analysis of the CQNs showed that there were two major weight losses due to the amorphous carbon decomposition (300-400 °C) and oxidation of CNTs (400-600 °C). Raman spectroscopy results showed that the CQNs with the highest graphitization were synthesized using Ni/CaO (10 wt%) at 800 °C with an IG/ID ratio of 1.30. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with the CQNs showed that the performance of nanocomposite-modified SPCEs were better than bare SPCEs. When compared to carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes or MWNT-COOH-modified SPCEs, the CQNs synthesized using Ni/CaO (10 wt%) at 800 °C gave higher CV peak currents and comparable electron transfer, making it a good alternative for screen-printed electrode modification.
Porous Ni, Ni-Co, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Cu magnetic alloys with a morphology similar to a giant barrel sponge were synthesized via a facile co-precipitation procedure and then by hydrogen reduction treatment. For the first time, the non-supported alloys with their unique morphology were employed in catalytic biogas decomposition (CBD) at a reaction temperature of 700 °C and 100 mL min-1 to produce syngas and carbon bio-nanofilaments, and the catalysts' behavior, CH₄ and CO₂ conversion, and the carbon produced during the reaction were investigated. All of the equimolar alloy catalysts showed good activity and stability for the catalytic biogas decomposition. The highest sustainability factor (0.66) and carbon yield (424%) were accomplished with the Ni-Co alloy without any significant inactivation for six hours, while the highest carbon efficiency of 36.43 was obtained with the Ni-Co catalyst, which is considered relatively low in comparison with industry standards, indicating a low carbon production process efficiency, possibly due to the relatively high biogas flow rate. The higher activity of the Ni-Co alloy catalyst was associated with the synergistic impact between nickel and cobalt, allowing the catalyst to maintain a high stability throughout the reaction period. Moreover, highly uniform, interwoven carbon bio-nanofilaments with a parallel and fishbone structure were achieved.
A high recombination rate and low charge collection are the main limiting factors of copper oxides (cupric and cuprous oxide) for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this paper, a high performance copper oxide photocatalyst was developed by integrating cupric oxide (CuO) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films, which showed superior performance for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the control CuO and Cu2O photocatalyst. Our results show that a heterojunction photocatalyst of CuO-Cu2O thin films could significantly increase the charge collection, reduce the recombination rate, and improve the photocatalytic activity.
Since technology progresses, the need to optimize the thermal system's heat transfer efficiency is continuously confronted by researchers. A primary constraint in the production of heat transfer fluids needed for ultra-high performance was its intrinsic poor heat transfer properties. MXene, a novel 2D nanoparticle possessing fascinating properties has emerged recently as a potential heat dissipative solute in nanofluids. In this research, 2D MXenes (Ti3C2) are synthesized via chemical etching and blended with a binary solution containing Diethylene Glycol (DEG) and ionic liquid (IL) to formulate stable nanofluids at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 wt%. Furthermore, the effect of different temperatures on the studied liquid's thermophysical characteristics such as thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, thermal stability and the rheological property was experimentally conducted. A computational analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of ionic liquid-based 2D MXene nanofluid (Ti3C2/DEG+IL) in hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. A 3D numerical model is developed to evaluate the thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency, heat transfer coefficient, pumping power and temperature distribution. The simulations proved that the studied working fluid in the PV/T system results in an enhancement of thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency and heat transfer coefficient by 78.5%, 18.7% and 6%, respectively.
Copper oxide and Zinc (Zn)-doped Copper oxide nanostructures (CuO-NSs) are successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal technique. The as-obtained pure and Zn-doped CuO-NSs were tested to study the effect of doping in CuO on structural, optical, and antibacterial properties. The band gap of the nanostructures is calculated by using the Tauc plot. Our results have shown that the band gap of CuO reduces with the addition of Zinc. Optimization of processing conditions and concentration of precursors leads to the formation of pine needles and sea urchin-like nanostructures. The antibacterial properties of obtained Zn-doped CuO-NSs are observed against Gram-negative (Pseudomonasaeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumonia,Escherichiacoli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcusaureus) bacteria via the agar well diffusion method. Zn doped s are found to have more effective bacterial resistance than pure CuO. The improved antibacterial activity is attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.
High proportion of copper has become a global challenge owing to its negative impact on the environment and public health complications. The present study focuses on the fabrication of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) fiber membrane incorporated with varying loading (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt%) of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles via phase inversion technique to achieve hydrophilicity along with high selectivity for copper removal. The developed fibers were characterized based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), permeability, porosity, zeta potential, and contact angle. The improved membrane (with 1.0 wt% TiO2) concentration recorded the maximum flux (223 L/m2·h) and copper rejection (98.18%). Similarly, 1.0 wt% concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles made the membrane matrix more hydrophilic with the least contact angle of 50.01°. The maximum copper adsorption capacity of 69.68 mg/g was attained at 1.0 wt% TiO2 concentration. The experimental data of adsorption capacity were best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model with R2 value of 0.99573. The hybrid membrane developed in this study has considerably eliminated copper from leachate and the concentration of copper in the permeate was substantially reduced to 0.044 mg/L, which is below standard discharge threshold.
Plastics have enormous impacts to every aspect of daily life including technology, medicine and treatments, and domestic appliances. Most of the used plastics are thrown away by consumers after a single use, which has become a huge environmental problem as they will end up in landfill, oceans and other waterways. These plastics are discarded in vast numbers each day, and the breaking down of the plastics from micro- to nano-sizes has led to worries about how toxic these plastics are to the environment and humans. While, there are several earlier studies reported the effects of micro- and nano-plastics have on the environment, there is scant research into their impact on the human body at subcellular or molecular levels. In particular, the potential of how nano-plastics move through the gut, lungs and skin epithelia in causing systemic exposure has not been examined thoroughly. This review explores thoroughly on how nanoplastics are created, how they behave/breakdown within the environment, levels of toxicity and pollution of these nanoplastics, and the possible health impacts on humans, as well as suggestions for additional research. This paper aims to inspire future studies into core elements of micro- and nano-plastics, the biological reactions caused by their specific and unusual qualities.
The development of membrane technology from biopolymer for water filtration has received a great deal of attention from researchers and scientists, owing to the growing awareness of environmental protection. The present investigation is aimed at producing poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) membranes, incorporated with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) at different loadings of 1 wt.% (PDNC-I, PDNW-I) and 2 wt.% (PDNC-II PDNW-II). From morphological characterization, it was evident that the nanocellulose particles induced pore formation within structure of the membrane. Furthermore, the greater surface reactivity of CNW particles facilitates in enhancing the surface wettability of membranes due to increased hydrophilicity. In addition, both thermal and mechanical properties for all nanocellulose filled membranes under investigation demonstrated significant improvement, particularly for PDNW-I-based membranes, which showed improvement in both aspects. The membrane of PDNW-I presented water permeability of 41.92 L/m2h, when applied under a pressure range of 0.1-0.5 MPa. The investigation clearly demonstrates that CNWs-filled PDLA membranes fabricated for this investigation have a very high potential to be utilized for water filtration purpose in the future.
Solid acid catalyzed cracking of waste oil-derived fatty acids is an attractive route to hydrocarbon fuels. HZSM-5 is an effective acid catalyst for fatty acid cracking; however, its microporous nature is susceptible to rapid deactivation by coking. We report the synthesis and application of hierarchical HZSM-5 (h-HZSM-5) in which silanization of pre-crystallized zeolite seeds is employed to introduce mesoporosity during the aggregation of growing crystallites. The resulting h-HZSM-5 comprises a disordered array of fused 10-20 nm crystallites and mesopores with a mean diameter of 13 nm, which maintain the high surface area and acidity of a conventional HZSM-5. Mesopores increase the yield of diesel range hydrocarbons obtained from oleic acid deoxygenation from ~20% to 65%, attributed to improved acid site accessibility within the hierarchical network.
The demand for carbon dioxide (CO2) gas detection is increasing nowadays. However, its fast detection at room temperature (RT) is a major challenge. Graphene is found to be the most promising sensing material for RT detection, owing to its high surface area and electrical conductivity. In this work, we report a highly edge functionalized chemically synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films to achieve fast sensing response for CO2 gas at room temperature. The high amount of edge functional groups is prominent for the sorption of CO2 molecules. Initially, rGO is synthesized by reduction of GO using ascorbic acid (AA) as a reducing agent. Three different concentrations of rGO are prepared using three AA concentrations (25, 50, and 100 mg) to optimize the material properties such as functional groups and conductivity. Thin films of three different AA reduced rGO suspensions (AArGO25, AArGO50, AArGO100) are developed and later analyzed using standard FTIR, XRD, Raman, XPS, TEM, SEM, and four-point probe measurement techniques. We find that the highest edge functionality is achieved by the AArGO25 sample with a conductivity of ~1389 S/cm. The functionalized AArGO25 gas sensor shows recordable high sensing properties (response and recovery time) with good repeatability for CO2 at room temperature at 500 ppm and 50 ppm. Short response and recovery time of ~26 s and ~10 s, respectively, are achieved for 500 ppm CO2 gas with the sensitivity of ~50 Hz/µg. We believe that a highly functionalized AArGO CO2 gas sensor could be applicable for enhanced oil recovery, industrial and domestic safety applications.
This experimental study aims to examine the partial discharge (PD) properties of palm oil and coconut oil (CO) based aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanofluids with and without surfactants. The type of surfactant used in this study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The volume concentrations range of Al2O3 dispersed in oil samples was varied from 0.001% to 0.05%. The ratio of surfactants to nanoparticles was set to 1:2. In total, two different types of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) and one type of CO were measured for PD. Mineral oil (MO) was also examined for comparison purpose. PDIV measurements for all samples were carried out based on rising voltage method whereby a needle-sphere electrode configuration with a gap distance of 50 mm was chosen in this study. Al2O3 improves the PDIVs of RBDPO, CO and MO whereby the highest improvements of PDIVs are 34%, 39.3% and 27%. The PD amplitude and repetition rate of RBDPO improve by 38% and 81% while for CO, it can increase up to 65% and 80% respectively. The improvement of PD amplitude and repetition rate for MO are 18% and 95%, regardless with and without SDS. Without SDS, the presence of Al2O3 could cause 26%, 75% and 65% reductions of the average emission of light signals for RBDPOA, RBDPOB and CO with the improvement of PD characteristics but both events do not correlate at the same volume concentration of Al2O3. On the other hand, the average emission of light signal levels of the oils increases with the introduction of SDS. The emission of light signal in MO does not correlate with the PD characteristics improvement either with or without SDS.
Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) based on high-quality well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were fabricated using both modified and conventional chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. The modified chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method was made by adding air bubbles to the growth solution during the CBD process. The viability and effectiveness of M-CBD were examined by developing UV PDs based on ZnO NRs. The ZnO nano-seed layer was coated on a glass substrate utilizing radiofrequency (RF) sputtering. The impact of the different growth-times on morphology, growth rate, crystal structure, and optical and chemical properties were investigated systematically using different characterization techniques, such as field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, UV-VIS double beam spectrometer, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), respectively. The Al/ZnO UV PDs based on ZnO nanorods were fabricated with optimum growth conditions through the two methods of preparation. This study showed that the synthesized ZnO NRs using the M-CBD method for different growth times possess better properties than the conventional method under similar deposition conditions. Despite having the highest aspect ratio and growth rate of ZnO NRs, which were found at 4 h growth duration for both methods, the aspect ratio of ZnO NRs using the M-CBD technique was comparatively higher than the conventional CBD method. Besides, the UV PDs fabricated by the M-CBD method at 5 V bias voltage showed high sensitivity, short response time, quick recovery time, high gain, low dark current, and high photocurrent compared with the UV PD device fabricated by the conventional CBD method.