Tin oxide (SnO2) with versatile properties is of substantial standing for practical application, and improved features of the material are demonstrated in the current issue through the integration of nanotechnology with bio-resources leading to what is termed as biosynthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs). This review reveals the recent advances in biosynthesis of SnO2 NPs by chemical precipitation method focused on distinct methodologies, characterization, and reaction mechanism along with a photocatalytic application for dye degradation. According to available literature reviews, numerous bio-based precursors selectively extracted from biological substrates have effectively been applied as capping or reducing agents to achieve the metal oxide NPs. The major precursor obtained from the aqueous extract of root barks of Catunaregam spinosa is found to be 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one that has been proposed as a model compound for the reduction of metal ions into nanoparticles due to having highly active functional groups, being abundant in plants (67.475 wt%), easy to extract, and eco benign. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of SnO2 NPs for the degradation of organic dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural contaminants has been discussed in the context of a promising bio-reduction mechanism of the synthesis. The final properties are supposed to depend exclusively upon a number of factors, e.g., particle size (
Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles*; Metal Nanoparticles*
Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in clinical practice. A number of MNP formulations are being investigated in clinical trials for various applications. This increase in the use of NPs results in higher exposure to humans, leading to toxicity issues. Hence, it is necessary to determine the possible undesirable effects of the MNPs after in-vivo application and exposure. One of the main reasons for the toxicity of MNPs is the release of their respective metallic ions throughout the body. Many research studies are in progress investigating the various strategies to reduce the toxicity of MNPs. These research studies aim to change the size, dose, agglomeration, release, and excretion rates of MNPs. In this perspective review, we discussed the possible strategies to improve the therapeutic effects of MNPs through various processes, with lessons learned from the studies involving silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We also discussed the ways to manage the toxicity of MNPs by purification, surface functionalization, synergistic effect, and targeted therapy approach. All these strategies could reduce the dose of the MNPs without compromising their therapeutic benefits, which could decrease the toxicity of MNPs. Additionally, we briefly discussed the market and toxicology testing for FDA-regulated MNPs.
Neurodegenerative disorder is an illness involving neural dysfunction/death attributed to complex pathological processes, which eventually lead to the mortality of the host. It is generally recognized through features such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, metal ions dyshomeostasis, membrane potential change, neuroinflammation and neurotransmitter impairment. The aforementioned neuronal dysregulations result in the formation of a complex neurodegenerative microenvironment (NME), and may interact with each other, hindering the performance of therapeutics for neurodegenerative disease (ND). Recently, smart nanoassemblies prepared from functional nanoparticles, which possess the ability to interfere with different NME factors, have shown great promise to enhance the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of NDs. Herein, this review highlights the recent advances of stimuli-responsive nanoassemblies that can effectively combat the NME for the management of ND. The first section outlined the NME properties and their interrelations that are exploitable for nanoscale targeting. The discussion is then extended to the controlled assembly of functional nanoparticles for the construction of stimuli-responsive nanoassemblies. Further, the applications of stimuli-responsive nanoassemblies for the enhanced diagnosis and therapy of ND are introduced. Finally, perspectives on the future development of NME-tailored nanomedicines are given.
Nanocellulose based gas barrier materials have become an increasingly important subject, since it is a widespread environmentally friendly natural polymer. Previous studies have shown that super-high gas barrier can be achieved with pure and hierarchical nanocellulose films fabricated through simple suspension or layer-by-layer technique either by itself or incorporating with other polymers or nanoparticles. Improved gas barrier properties were observed for nanocellulose-reinforced composites, where nanocellulose partially impermeable nanoparticles decreased gas permeability effectively. However, for nanocellulose-based materials, the higher gas barrier performance is jeopardized by water absorption and shape deformation under high humidity conditions which is a challenge for maintaining properties in material applications. Thus, numerous investigations have been done to solve the problem of water absorption in nanocellulose-based materials. In this literature review, gas barrier properties of pure, layer-by-layer and composite nanocellulose films are investigated. The possible theoretical gas barrier mechanisms are described, and the prospects for nanocellulose-based materials are discussed.
The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has witnessed a rapid and global proliferation since its early identification in patients with severe pneumonia in Wuhan, China. As of 27th May 2020, 2019-nCoV cases have risen to >5 million, with confirmed deaths of 350,000. However, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostic and treatment measures are yet to be fully unraveled, given the novelty of this particular coronavirus. Therefore, existing antiviral agents used for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were repurposed for COVID-19, taking their biological features into consideration. This study provides a concise review of the current and emerging detection and supervision technologies for SARS-CoV-2, which is the viral etiology of COVID19, and their performance characteristics, with emphasis on the novel Nano-based diagnostic tests (protein corona sensor array and magnetic levitation) and treatment measures (treatment protocols based on nano-silver colloids) for COVID-19.
Recently, there has been considerable attention towards the production of environmentally friendly nanoparticles (NPs). In this investigation, the successful synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) was achieved by employing an eco-friendly technique that utilized an extract from the leaves of local plant quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.). The synthesized CeO2 NPs were subjected to characterization using state-of-the-art methods. The prepared CeO2 NPs contained a round shape with clusters and have a size of 7-10 nm. To assess how effective CeO2 NPs derived from C. quinoa were against Ustilago tritici, a fungal disease that negatively affects wheat crop globally, a study was performed on two varieties of wheat crop comprised of Arooj (V1) and Akber (V2), cultivated under field conditions. CeO2 NPs were applied foliarly twice to the wheat crop at four different concentrations: T0 (0 mg/L), T1 (50 mg/L), T2 (75 mg/L), and T3 (100 mg/L). The results revealed that the control group (T0) exhibited the highest disease severity index (DSI) with a value of 75% compared to the other concentrations of CeO2 NPs on both varieties. At a concentration of 100 mg/L of CeO2 NPs, the DSI dropped to a minimum of 35% and 37% on both V1 and V2 respectively. These findings indicated that an increase in the concentration of CeO2 NPs has a beneficial impact on disease severity. Similar patterns have also been observed with disease incidence (DI), with the greatest efficacy observed at a concentration of 100 mg/L of CeO2 NPs. Our investigation has shown that CeO2 NPs exhibitd significant antifungal potential against U. tritici which may be a promising strategy to mitigate fungal disease and crop losses globally.
Superkonduktor suhu tinggi berasaskan sistem (Tl0.85Cr0.15)Sr2CaCu2O7-Agx (Tl1212) dengan komposisi x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 dan 0.05 telah disediakan dengan kaedah tindak balas keadaan pepejal. Rintangan elektrik terhadap suhu telah diukur dengan kaedah penduga empat titik. Suhu genting mula, Tc-mula bagi sistem Tl1212 tanpa penambahan nano Ag adalah 113 K. Penambahan nano Ag menurunkan suhu genting sampel. Corak pembelauan sinar-X menunjukkan bahawa semua sampel mempunyai fasa dominan 1212. Sampel x = 0.02 mempunyai peratusan fasa 1212 yang tertinggi iaitu 87%.
This paper focuses on the recent advances on radiolysis-assisted shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. The techniques and protocols for producing desirable shapes of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed through introducing the critical parameters which can influence the nucleation and growth mechanisms. Nucleation rate plays a vital role on the crystallinity of seeds while growth rate of different seeds' facets determines the final shape of resultant nanoparticles. Nucleation and growth rate both can be altered with factors such as absorbed dose, capping agents, and experimental environment condition to control the final shape. Remarkable physical and chemical properties of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles by controlled morphology have been systematically evaluated to fully explore their applications.
Nanotechnology is capturing great interest worldwide due to their stirring applications in various fields. Among nanoparticles (NPs), titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs have been widely used in daily life and can be synthesized through various physical, chemical, and green methods. Green synthesis is a non-toxic, cost-effective, and eco-friendly route for the synthesis of NPs. Plenty of work has been reported on the green, chemical, physical and biological synthesis of TiO2 NPs and these NPs can be characterized through high tech. instruments. In the present review, dense data have been presented on the comparative synthesis of TiO2 NPs with different characteristics and their wide range of applications. Among the TiO2 NPs synthesis techniques, the green methods have been proven to be efficient than chemical synthesis methods because of the less use of precursors, time-effectiveness, and energy-efficiency during the green synthesis procedures. Moreover, this review describes the types of plants (shrubs, herbs and trees), microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and algae), biological derivatives (proteins, peptides, and starches) employed for the synthesis of TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs can be effectively used for the treatment of polluted water and positively affected the plant physiology especially under abiotic stresses but the response varied with types, size, shapes, doses, duration of exposure, metal species along with other factors. This review also highlights the regulating features and future standpoints for the measurable enrichment in TiO2 NPs product and perspectives of TiO2 NPs reliable application.
Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles*; Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
Chitosan is mainly derived from seafood by-products and the thereof chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) are known as nontoxic, biocompatible, biodegradable and functionalized nanostructures. CNPs, as green fillers, showed an appropriate potential in reinforcement of various biodegradable composites for food packaging and biomedical applications. After evaluation of different fabrication approaches and characterization techniques of CNPs, the changes in physical, mechanical, thermal, structural, morphological, and antimicrobial attributes of nanobiocomposites as a result of CNPs addition are discussed. The influence of bioactive loaded-CNPs and hybrid CNPs with metal nanoparticles, graphene, and montmorillonite in nanocomposites is also presented. Finally, the safety aspects of CNPs-loaded structures are highlighted to evaluate their implementation in food packaging and biomedical systems. It can be concluded that regardless of a few drawbacks, CNPs are promising nanomaterials to improve various operational, structural and antimicrobial properties of biocomposites for various applications in food packaging, delivery systems and biomedical uses.
Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles*; Metal Nanoparticles*
The steady two-dimensional flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is investigated using Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Different from the previously published papers, in the present study we consider the case when the nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled, which make the model more physically realistic. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of some governing parameters on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are graphically presented and discussed. Dual solutions are found to exist in a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Results also indicate that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with increasing values of the suction parameter.
The sonochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different shapes and size distributions by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating at 463 kHz is reported. GNP formation proceeds through the reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0) by radicals generated by acoustic cavitation. TEM images reveal that GNPs show irregular shapes at 30 W, are primarily icosahedral at 50 W and form a significant amount of nanorods at 70 W. The size of GNPs decreases with increasing acoustic power with a narrower size distribution. Sonochemiluminescence images help in the understanding of the effect of HIFU in controlling the size and shapes of GNPs. The number of radicals that form and the mechanical forces that are generated control the shape and size of the GNPs. UV/Vis spectra and TEM images are used to propose a possible mechanism for the observed effects. The results presented demonstrate, for the first time, that the HIFU system can be used to synthesise size- and shape-controlled metal nanoparticles.
Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
Surface functionalization and shape modifications are the key strategies being utilized to overcome the limitations of semiconductors in advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Herein, the uniform α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (α-Fe2O3-NCs) were effectively synthesized via a simple solvothermal route. Meanwhile, the sulfonic acid functionalization (SAF) and the impregnation of α-Fe2O3-NCs on g-C3N4 (α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF) were achieved through complete solvent evaporation technique. The surface functionalization of the sulfonic acid group on g-C3N4 accelerates the faster migration of electrons to the surface owing to robust electronegativity. The incorporation of α-Fe2O3-NCs with CN-SAF significantly enhances the optoelectronic properties, ultrafast spatial charge separation, and rapid charge transportation. The α-Fe2O3-HPs@CN-SAF and α-Fe2O3-NPs@CN-SAF nanocomposites attained 97.41% and 93.64% of Cr (VI) photoreduction in 10 min, respectively. The photocatalytic efficiency of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposite is 2.4 and 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4 and α-Fe2O3, respectively. Besides, the XPS, PEC and recycling experiments confirm the excellent photo-induced charge separation via Z-scheme heterostructure and cyclic stability of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposites.
Microalgae cultivation using open cultivation systems requires large area and it is susceptible to contamination as well as weather changes. Meanwhile, the closed systems require large capital investment, and they are susceptible to the build-up of dissolved oxygen. Air-liquid interface culture systems with low water-footprint, but high packing density can be used for microalgae cultivation if low-cost culture scaffolds are available. In this study, cellulose-based scaffolds were synthesized using NaOH/urea aqueous solution as the solvent. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica gel and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) nanoparticles were added into the membrane scaffolds to increase the hydrophilicity of nutrient absorbing to support the growth of microalgae. The membrane scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle, porosity and porometry. All three nanoparticles additives showed their ability in reducing the contact angle of membrane scaffolds from 63.4 ± 2.3° to a range of 52.6 ± 1.2° to 38.8 ± 1.5° due to the hydrophilic properties of the nanoparticles. The decreasing in pore size when nanoparticles were added did not affect the porosity of membrane scaffolds. Cellulose membrane scaffold with TiO2 showed the highest percentage of microalgae Navicula incerta growth rate of 22.1% because of the antibacterial properties of TiO2 in lowering the risk of cell contamination and enhancing the growth of N. incerta. The results exhibited that cellulose-based scaffold with TiO2 added could be an effective support in plant cell culture field.
Intensive studies have been performed on the improvement of bioethanol production by transformation of lignocellulose biomass. In this study, the digestibility of corn stover was dramatically improved by using laccase immobilized on Cu2+ modified recyclable magnetite nanoparticles, Fe3O4-NH2. After digestion, the laccase was efficiently separated from slurry. The degradation rate of lignin reached 40.76%, and the subsequent cellulose conversion rate 38.37% for 72 h at 35 °C with cellulase at 50 U g-1 of corn stover. Compared to those of free and inactivated mode, the immobilized laccase pre-treatment increased subsequent cellulose conversion rates by 23.98% and 23.34%, respectively. Moreover, the reusability of immobilized laccase activity remained 50% after 6 cycles. The storage and thermal stability of the fixed laccase enhanced by 70% and 24.1% compared to those of free laccase at 65 °C, pH 4.5, respectively. At pH 10.5, it exhibited 16.3% more activities than its free mode at 35 °C. Our study provides a new avenue for improving the production of bioethanol with immobilized laccase for delignification using corn stover as the starting material.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have received great research attention since the last few decades due to their extraordinary properties and wide range of applications. In this study, a sustainable and cost-effective method for the synthesis of lignin-containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is presented. This method is able to retain the lignin in EFB and manifest the properties of lignin. The proposed synthesis process is simpler than the conventional method of producing lignin-coated CNC by first removing the lignin to synthesize CNC followed by the re-coating of lignin on the structure. The samples of LCNC were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle analysis. In addition, by altering the acid concentration during acid hydrolysis process (53% - 60% H2SO4), both surface hydrophobicity (66.0° - 75.1°) and length of LCNC (467 nm-177 nm) can be altered wherein a higher concentration of acid resulted in a greater contact angle and a shorter length of LCNC. Cost and energy analysis deduced that the proposed synthesis method saved about 62% of the total material cost and 80% less energy as compared to the synthesis of lignin-coated CNC.
New food packaging materials provide an attractive option for the advancement of nanomaterials. The poor thermal, mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of biopolymers and their inherent permeability to gases and vapor have increased this interest. Polymeric materials (matrix) in modern technologies require a filler, which can react/interact with the available matrix to provide a new formulation with improved packaging properties including oxygen permeability, moisture permeability, crystalline structure, barrier properties, morphology, thermal stability, optical properties, anti-microbial characteristics, and mechanical properties. The performance of nanocomposite films and packaging is dependent on the size of the nanofillers used and the uniformity of the nanoparticles (NPs) distribution and dispersion in the matrix. Advancement in nanocomposite technologies is expected to grow with the advent of sustainable, low price, environmentally friendly materials with an enhanced performance. The current review addresses advances in the biopolymeric nanocomposites as alternatives to petroleum plastics in the food packaging industry. It also provides a brief description of biopolymer nanocomposite films and gives general information about different metal NPs with an emphasis on their influence on the emerging characteristics of biodegradable films. The results of recent reports provide a better understanding of the influence of metal NPs in food packaging.
The collection of different bulk materials forms the nanoparticles, where the properties of the nanoparticle are solely different from the individual components before being ensembled. Selfassembled nanoparticles are basically a group of complex functional units that are formed by gathering the individual bulk components of the system. It includes micelles, polymeric nanoparticle, carbon nanotubes, liposomes and niosomes, etc. This self-assembly has progressively heightened interest to control the final complex structure of the nanoparticle and its associated properties. The main challenge of formulating self-assembled nanoparticle is to improve the delivery system, bioavailability, enhance circulation time, confer molecular targeting, controlled release, protection of the incorporated drug from external environment and also serve as nanocarriers for macromolecules. Ultimately, these self-assembled nanoparticles facilitate to overcome the physiological barriers in vivo. Self-assembly is an equilibrium process where both individual and assembled components are subsisting in equilibrium. It is a bottom up approach in which molecules are assembled spontaneously, non-covalently into a stable and welldefined structure. There are different approaches that have been adopted in fabrication of self-assembled nanoparticles by the researchers. The current review is enriched with strategies for nanoparticle selfassembly, associated properties, and its application in therapy.