Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of < or = 16%, while POs2 at level of < or = 20%. At 10 degrees C, eutectic interaction occur between PO and PKO which reach their maximum at about 60:40 blending ratio. Within the eutectic region, to maintain the SFC at 10 degrees C to be < or = 50%, POs1 may be added at level of < or = 7%, while POs2 at level of < or = 12%. The addition of palm stearin increased the blends solidification Tmin and Tmax values, while PKO reduced them. Blends which contained high amount of palm stearin showed melting point and cooling curves quite similar to that of pastry margarine.
A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in comparison with the traditional sources of saturated fats such as coconut oil, dairy and animal fats. In addition, palm oil consumption may raise HDL levels and reduce platelet aggregability. As with all nutrients, there is a need to obtain a balance of different fatty acids found in fats in edible oils and other food sources. There is no single ideal source of fat that answers to the recent American Heart Association's call to reflect a 1:1:1 ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in relation to the recommended dietary fat intake of 30% of calories or less.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Two types of palm oil and sal fat based cocoa butter equivalents, namely fCBE (produced by using co-fractionation method) and mCBE (produced by using conventional method) were prepared. Results showed that the fCBE had triglyceride composition and solidification characteristics closer to the Malaysian cocoa butter than the mCBE produced at the same yield percentage. Increasing acetone washing time had little effect on the fCBE if compared to the effect of increasing palm olein to sal fat blend ratio. Co-fractionation technique increase the compatibility between CBE component triglycerides. Thus, more palm oil can be incorporated in the preparation and the process can be carried out at not low temperature as compared to the conventional method.
Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake.
Consumption of heated edible oils may be harmful. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes due to concurrent consumption of soy oil (either fresh or heated) and fatty diet and the changes in the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
Anhydrous milkfat (AMF) was fractionated to obtain a series of high-melting milkfat fractions (HMF). Solid fat content (SFC) of HMF as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was in the range 37.6-43.6% and 21.2-27.5% measured at 20 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The HMF have a higher melting characteristic compared to AMF as analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with melting enthalpies of 92.2-105.0 J/g and melting peak temperatures of 39.3-41.5 degrees C. The AMF was also blended with soft palm stearin (SPOs and/or hard palm stearin (HPOs)) according to a three conventional component mixture design which providing suitable formulations for HMF. This represented three selected blends of AMF:SPOs:HPOs at three different proportions (70:15:15, 60:30:10 and 50:45:5), having SFC and DSC melting characteristics of HMF. The study revealed that higher-melting characteristics of AMF could be achieved equally well by using both fractionation and blending techniques.
In recent years, issues regading safety and wellness of dietary oils and fats have received major attention. This is particularly so in the case of structured modified fats, which are being used extensively to meet the product-specific demand primarily in bakery industry as shortenings, cocoa butter substitutes in confectionary industry, and in margarine preparation, as butter substitute. During modification stages, native oils and fats are subjected to different physical and chemical treatments such as fractionation, hydrogenation and interesterification in order to produce fats with desirable
physical as well as functional properties. Numerous studies have demonstrated the adverse health effects of these modified oils and fats, especially trans fatty acids, using animal models as well as human volunteers. Consequently, the decadesold process of partial hydrogenation of oils has been abandoned in most nations. However, alternative technologies to hydrogenation are on rise, creating new trends in modified oils and fats synthesis to cater food industry needs that may have unforeseeable consequences on human health.
INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of information on the trans fatty acid (TFA) content in Malaysian foods. The objective of this study is to determine the TFA content of bakery products, snacks, dairy products, fast foods, cooking oils and semisolid fats, and breakfast cereals and Malaysian fast foods. This study also estimated the quantity of each isomer in the foods assayed.
METHODS: The trans fatty acid content of each food sample was assessed in duplicate by separating the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a gas chromatography system equipped with HP-88 column (USA: split ratio 10: 1) for cis/trans separation. Five major TFA isomers, palmitoelaidic acid (16: 1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18: 1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9, 12), were measured using gas chromatography (GC) and the data were expressed in unit values of g/100 g lipid or g/100 g food.
RESULTS: The total TFA contents in the studied foods were < 0.001 g-8.77 g/100 g lipid or < 0.001 g-5.79 g/100 g foods. This value falls within the standard and international recommendation level for TFA. The measured range of specific TFA isomers were as follows: palmitoelaidic acid (< 0.001 g-0.26 g/100 g lipid), petroselaidic acid (< 0.001 g - 3.09 g/100 g lipid), elaidic acid (< 0.001 g-0.87 g/100 g lipid), vaccenic acid (< 0.001 g-0.41 g/100 g lipid) and linoelaidic acid (< 0.001 g-6.60 g/100 g lipid).
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that most of the tested foods have low TFA contents (< 1 g/100 g lipid).
The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorphs obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes.
The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid (TFA) contents of biscuits products were determined by gas chromatography, using a highly polar 100m capillary column (HP-88) and flame ionization detection. Total TFA ranged from 0.00 – 0.52 g/100 g total fatty acids and 0.12 – 0.68 g/100 g total fatty acids for local packed and unpacked biscuits, respectively. In imported biscuits, total TFA was higher ranging from 0.03 – 3.09 g/100 g of total fatty acids. Trans 16:1 was the most abundant, with values ranging from 0.01% to 38% followed by trans 18:1 Δ11 (0.01% - 13.11%), trans 18:1 Δ9 (0.01% - 4.68%), trans 18:2 (0.23% - 2.77%) and small quantities of trans 18:1 Δ6. CLA, the natural TFA constituted from 0.1% to
Fat content and macroscopic properties of fat network formulation result in final products in chocolate industry. The knowledge of physical properties is required in regard to stability of final food products resulting to quality. The study was carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, solid fat content and hardness of Rambutan fat (RF), cocoa butter and mixtures between two fats. The results found that the mixtures can be compatibility; the cocoa butter indicated the higher of solid fat content at room temperature more than RF and other mixtures. The RF had the highest melting point in both non-stabilized and stabilized form among cocoa butter and their mixtures. The hardness behavior showed lower in the mixture 1 and RF. For the phase behavior of crystallization exhibited the similar for all samples whereas the time of crystallization and temperatures were different. Therefore, the RF might be possible source of cocoa butter substitute with suitable proportion in the manufacturing chocolate and confectionery products.
A study was carried out to compare the cookie dough properties and cookie quality made out
of pink guava oil-palm stearin blends and lard (LD). Since LD is prohibited under religious
restrictions, plant shortenings were prepared by mixing pink guava seed oil with palm stearin
(PGO/PS) in different ratios: PGO-1, 40:60; PGO-2, 45:55; PGO-3, 50:50; PGO-4; 55:45 as
replacement. The effect of these formulated plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were
compared on dough rheological properties and cookie quality. Rheology and hardness of the
cookie dough were evaluated using Texture Analyser (TA). Cookie hardness was evaluated
with TA while cookie surface colors were measured using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system.
Among the samples, cookies made out of PGO-2 with the ratio 45:55 (PGO:PS) performed the
best substitute for LD to be used as shortening in cookies. PGO-2 also displayed the closest
similarity to LD in cookies for hardness, size and thickness, cracking size as well as colour.
As PGO-2 was a shortening formulated with plant-based ingredients, it could comply with the
halal and toyyiban requirements.
The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.
Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy, normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. The subjects consumed high oleic palm olein (HOPO diet: 15% of energy 18:1n-9, 9% of energy 16:0), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO diet: 7% of energy 18:1n-9, 10% of energy 18:1 trans) and an unhydrogenated palm stearin (PST diet: 11% of energy 18:1n-9, 14% of energy 16:0). Each dietary period lasted 5 weeks with a 7 days washout period. The PHSO diet significantly increased serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein compared to HOPO and PST diets (by 26, 23%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both) and significantly decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) compared to PST diet (by 12%; P < 0.05). In particular PHSO diet, and also PST diet, significantly increased total:HDL cholesterol ratio compared to HOPO diet (by 23, 13%, respectively; P < 0.05), with the PST diet having a lesser effect than the PHSO diet (by 8%; P < 0.05). The use of vegetable oils in their natural state might be preferred over one that undergoes the process of hydrogenation in modulating blood lipids and inflammation.