Quassinoids, the major secondary metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia roots, improve male fertility. Hence, it is crucial to investigate their quantitative level in E. longifolia extracts. A profile was established to identify the primary metabolites and major quassinoids, and quantify quassinoids using external calibration curves. Furthermore, the metabolic discrimination of E. longifolia roots from different regions was investigated. The (1)H-NMR spectra of the quassinoids, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside were obtained. The (1)H-NMR profiles of E. longifolia root aqueous extracts from Perak (n = 30) were obtained and used to identify primary metabolites and the quassinoids. Selangor, Kedah, Terengganu (n = 5 for each), and Perak samples were checked for metabolic discrimination. Hotelling's T(2) plot was used to check for outliers. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis was run to reveal the discriminatory metabolites. Perak samples contained formic, succinic, methylsuccinic, fumaric, lactic, acetic and syringic acids as well as choline, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, α-glucose, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside. The extracts from other locations contained the same metabolites. The limit of quantification values were 1.96 (eurycomanone), 15.62 (eurycomanol), 3.91 (13,21-dihydroeurycomanone), and 31.25 (eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside) ppm. The Hotelling's T(2) plot revealed no outlier. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model showed that choline, eurycomanol, eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, and lactic and succinic acid levels were different among regions. Terengganu and Perak samples contained higher amounts of eurycomanol and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, respectively. The current approach efficiently detected E. longifolia root metabolites, quantified the quassinoids, and discriminated E. longifolia roots from different locations. These findings could be applicable to future research on E. longifolia where the higher content of quassinoids is required.
The present study investigated the antiobesity and lipid lowering effects of an ethanolic extract of leaves obtained from Orthosiphon stamineus (200 and 400 mg/kg) and its major compound (rosmarinic acid, 10 mg/kg) in obese mice (C57BL/6) induced by a high-fat diet. Continuous supplementation with O. stamineus extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks significantly decreased body weight gain (p
Magnoflorine, a major bioactive metabolite isolated from Tinospora crispa, has been reported for its diverse biochemical and pharmacological properties. However, there is little report on its underlying mechanisms of action on immune responses, particularly on macrophage activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of magnoflorine, isolated from T. crispa on the pro-inflammatory mediators generation induced by LPS and the concomitant NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages. Differentiated U937 macrophages were treated with magnoflorine and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators was evaluated through ELISA, while the relative mRNA expression of the respective mediators was quantified through qRT-PCR. Correspondingly, western blotting was executed to observe the modulatory effects of magnoflorine on the expression of various markers related to NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling activation in LPS-primed U937 macrophages. Magnoflorine significantly enhanced the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 production as well as COX-2 protein expression. Successively, magnoflorine prompted the mRNA transcription level of these pro-inflammatory mediators. Magnoflorine enhanced the NF-κB activation by prompting p65, IκBα, and IKKα/β phosphorylation as well as IκBα degradation. Besides, magnoflorine treatments concentration-dependently augmented the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs as well as Akt. The immunoaugmenting effects were further confirmed by investigating the effects of magnoflorine on specific inhibitors, where the treatment with specific inhibitors of NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt proficiently blocked the magnoflorine-triggered TNF-α release and COX-2 expression. Magnoflorine furthermore enhanced the MyD88 and TLR4 upregulation. The results suggest that magnoflorine has high potential on augmenting immune responses.
The growing demand and commercial value of black pepper (Piper nigrum) has resulted in considerable interest in developing suitable and cost-effective methods for chemical characterization and quality evaluation purposes. In the current study, an extensive set of oil samples (n = 23) that were extracted by steam distillation from black pepper seeds was investigated to compare the chemical profiles of samples originating from nine major producing countries, as well as to identify potential chemical markers for quality evaluation. The twenty-two most abundant volatile compounds, mainly terpenes, in these oils were determined by conventional GC/MS analysis. Principal component analysis with this set of data revealed distinct clusters for samples that originated from China and Malaysia. Relatively low concentrations of sabinene (
Centella asiatica, a triterpene-rich medicinal herb, is traditionally used to treat various types of diseases including neurological, dermatological, and metabolic diseases. A few articles have previously reviewed a broad range of pharmacological activities of C. asiatica, but none of these reviews focuses on the use of C. asiatica in cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to summarize recent findings on protective effects of C. asiatica and its active constituents (asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and madecassoside) in cardiovascular diseases. In addition, their beneficial effects on conditions associated with cardiovascular diseases were also reviewed. Articles were retrieved from electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords "Centella asiatica," "asiatic acid," "asiaticoside," "madecassic acid," and "madecassoside." The articles published between 2004 and 2018 that are related to the aforementioned topics were selected. A few clinical studies published beyond this period were also included. The results showed that C. asiatica and its active compounds possess potential therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease-related conditions, as evidenced by numerous in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. C. asiatica and its triterpenes have been reported to exhibit cardioprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, more clinical and pharmacokinetic studies are needed to support the use of C. asiatica and its triterpenes as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. Besides, elucidation of the molecular pathways modulated by C. asiatica and its active constituents will help to understand the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective action of C. asiatica.
Zingiber montanum rhizomes are traditionally used for the treatment of numerous human ailments. The present study was carried out to investigate the inhibitory activity of the crude extract, chromatographic fractions, and purified compounds from Z. montanum rhizomes on the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. The effect of the extract on cell migration was investigated by a scratch assay, which showed significant inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner. Vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel afforded four fractions (Frs. 1 - 4), which were tested on cell migration in the scratch assay. Frs. 1 and 2 showed the most significant inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell migration. The effect of the most potent fraction (Fr. 2) was further confirmed in a transwell migration assay. The study of Frs. 1 and 2 by gelatin zymography showed significant inhibition of MMP-9 enzyme activity. Chromatographic separation of Frs. 1 and 2 afforded buddledone A (1: ), zerumbone (2: ), (2E,9E)-6-methoxy-2,9-humuradien-8-one (3: ), zerumbone epoxide (4: ), stigmasterol (5: ), and daucosterol (6: ). In a cell viability assay, compounds 1: - 4: inhibited the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The study of buddledone A (1: ) and zerumbone epoxide (4: ) on cell migration revealed that 4: significantly inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in both scratch and transwell migration assays. The results of the present study may lead to further molecular studies behind the inhibitory activity of zerumbone epoxide (4: ) on cell migration and support the traditional use of Z. montanum rhizomes for the treatment of cancer.
The antinociceptive property of Centella asiatica extracts is known but the analgesic activity of its bioactive constituent asiaticoside has not been reported. We evaluated the antinociceptive activity of orally (p. o.) administered asiaticoside (1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg) in mice using the 0.6% acetic acid-induced writhing test, the 2.5% formalin-induced paw licking test, and the hot plate test. The capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests were employed to evaluate the involvement of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems, respectively. Asiaticoside (3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced the rate of writhing (p
Among the quassinoids isolated from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, eurycomanone was identified as the most potent and toxic inhibitor of the chloroquine-resistant Gombak A isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. Several diacylated derivatives of eurycomanone, 1,15-di-O-isovaleryleurycomanone, 1,15-di-O-(3,3-dimethylacryloyl)- eurycomanone and 1,15-di-O-benzoyleurycomanone were synthesized by direct acylation with the respective acid chlorides. The monoacylated 15-O-isovaleryleurycomanone was synthesized by selective protection of the other hydroxy groups of eurycomanone with trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulphonate to enable the exclusive acylation of its C-15 hydroxy group. This was followed by the removal of the protecting groups with citric acid. The diacylated eurycomanones exhibited lower antiplasmodial activity against the Gombak A isolates and lower toxicity in the brine shrimp assay when compared to eurycomanone. In contrast, the monoacylated derivative displayed comparable antiplasmodial potency to eurycomanone, but its toxicity was reduced. Thus, preliminary studies of the synthesized acylated eurycomanones have shown that acylation only at the C-15 hydroxy group may be worthy of further antimalarial investigation.
A validated HPLC analysis of eurycomanone (1), a bioactive quassinoid, in rat plasma following oral and intravenous administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract was developed for pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies. Relatively high plasma eurycomanone concentrations were detected after an intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg extract F2 containing 1.96 mg/kg of the quassinoid. However, it declined rapidly to zero after 8 h. Its mean elimination rate constant (k(e)), biological half-life (t(1/2)), volume of distribution (V(d)) and clearance (CL) were 0.88 +/- 0.19 h (-1), 1.00 +/- 0.26 h, 0.68 +/- 0.30 L/kg and 0.39 +/- 0.08 L/h/kg, respectively. Following oral administration of eurycomanone, its Cmax and Tmax values were detected as 0.33 +/- 0.03 microg/mL and 4.40 +/- 0.98 h, respectively. The plasma concentration of the quassinoid after oral administration was much lower than after intravenous application in spite of the oral dose being 5 times higher. The results indicate that eurycomanone is poorly bioavailable when given orally. A comparison of the AUC (0-->infinity) obtained orally to that obtained after an intravenous administration (normalized for dose differences) revealed that the absolute bioavailability of the compound was low with 10.5 %. Furthermore, the compound appeared to be well distributed in the extravascular fluids because of its relatively high V(d) value. The poor oral bioavailability was not attributed to instability problems because eurycomanone has been shown to be stable under different pH conditions. Thus, its poor oral bioavailability may be due to poor membrane permeability in view of its low P value and/or high first-pass metabolism.
Common Gram-positive clinical pathogens are showing an increasing trend for resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. New drugs with potent antibacterial activities are urgently needed to remediate this problem. Halogenated compounds isolated from several species of the red algae genus Laurencia were examined for their antibacterial activity against 22 strains of human pathogenic bacteria, 7 strains of which were antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Four phenolic sesquiterpenes and a polybrominated indole showed wide spectra of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium (VRE). In addition, laurinterol and allolaurinterol displayed potent bactericidal activity against three strains of MRSA at 3.13 microg mL(-1), and three strains of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus, at 3.13 microg mL(-1) and 6.25 microg mL(-1), respectively.
The molecular pathways underlying the diverse biological activity of the triterpeniod compounds isolated from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica were studied with gene microarrays and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 1053 human genes in human fibroblasts. Fibroblast cells grown in culture were used as a model system to evaluate the stimulation of wound healing by titrated extract from Centella asiatica (TECA) as well as by the four principal triterpenoid components of Centella. TECA treatment effects the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and the remodeling of extracellular matrix, as well as diverse growth factor genes. The extent of expression change of TNFAIP6, an extracellular hyaluronan binding protein, was found to be largely dose-dependent, to respond most strongly to the free acids asiatic acid and madecassic acid, and to increase in expression over 48 hours of treatment. These results show that Centella triterpenes evoke a gene-expression response consistent with their prevailing medical uses in the treatment of connective tissue disorders such as wound healing and microangiopathy. The identification of genes modulated by these compounds provides the basis for a molecular understanding of Centella's bioactivity, and opportunities for the quantitative correlation of this activity with clinical effectiveness at a molecular level.
Rubraxanthone and isocowanol isolated from Garcinia parvifolia Miq. were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Rubraxanthone showed a strong inhibition with IC 50 value of 18.2 microM. The IC 50 values of macluraxanthone, 6-deoxyjacareubin, 2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone, 2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone and 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6,6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':6,7)-4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-xanthone were also determined for comparison. In the course of our study on structure-activity relationship of xanthones, the results revealed that a geranyl group substituted at C-8 was beneficial to the binding while a hydroxylated prenyl group at C-4 resulted in a significant loss in binding to the PAF receptor.
A new and simple HPLC method using fluorescence detection was developed to determine 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, an active compound of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in rat and human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of plasma sample after deproteinization using acetonitrile. The mobile phase comprised acetonitrile and distilled water (55 : 45, v/v). Analysis was run at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min with the detector operating at an excitation wavelength of 371 nm and emission wavelength of 504 nm. The method was specific and sensitive with a detection limit of 0.6 ng/ml and a quantification limit of approximately 1.6 ng/ml. The method was applied in a pilot pharmacokinetic/bioavailability study of the compound in rats. Less than 1 % of the compound was found to be absorbed orally.
Dichloromethane extracts of the root bark and stem bark of Kigelia pinnata collected from Zimbabwe exhibited antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in vitro. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of four naphthoquinones from both the root and stem bark of the plant. The compounds were identified as 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone (1), isopinnatal (2), kigelinol (3), and isokigelinol (4). Subsequently, the compounds were assessed for antitrypanosomal activity against T. brucei brucei and T. brucei rhodesiense bloodstream form trypomastigotes in vitro. Compound 1 with a furanonaphthoquinone structure was found to possess pronounced activity against both parasites with IC50 values of 0.12 and 0.045 microM, respectively, although it was less active than the standard drug pentamidine. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 also exhibited activity against the parasites, although to a lesser extent. The activities of the compounds were further assessed by comparison with the cytotoxic activities obtained against KB cell lines.
The rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis yielded a new bis-labdanic diterpene for which the name pahangensin C (1) was proposed along with twelve known analogues (2-13). The structure of 1 was elucidated via spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 2 and 12 were isolated for the first time from the genus Alpinia. This is the second occurrence of compounds 2 and 12 in the Zingiberaceae family. Selected analogues exhibited moderate to strong inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus.
Development of early stage atherosclerosis involves the activation of endothelial cells by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) with subsequent increases in endothelial permeability and expression of adhesion molecules favoring the adherence of monocytes to the endothelium. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major compound derived from the Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, is known for its protective effects against cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether CTS could prevent the oxLDL-induced early atherosclerotic events. OxLDL (100 µg/mL) was used to increase endothelial permeability and induce monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, a permeability-regulating molecule, and expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured. Results show that a) endothelial hyperpermeability was suppressed by 94 % (p
Chronic inflammation is one of the predisposing factors for neoplastic transformation. Targeting inflammation through suppression of the pro-inflammatory pathway by dietary phytochemicals provides an important strategy for cancer prevention. Maslinic acid is a novel natural triterpenoid known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in some tumor cell lines. Although maslinic acid has cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms of its effects on the inflammatory pathway have yet to be elucidated. It has been reported that abnormal expression of pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes promotion of cellular proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, enhancement of angiogenesis and invasiveness. In the present study, the suppressive effect of maslinic acid on COX-2 expression and the binding activity of upstream transcription factors NF- κB and AP-1, which are known to regulate COX-2 transcriptional activation, were assessed using Raji cells. The anti-inflammatory action of maslinic acid was benchmarked against oleanolic acid and other standard drugs. Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were employed to analyze COX-2 expression as well as NF- κB and AP-1 binding activity. Our results showed that maslinic acid suppresses COX-2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Likewise, the constitutive nuclear NF- κB (p65) activity as well as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and sodium N-butyrate (SnB)-induced AP-1 binding activity in Raji cells were significantly reduced following treatment with maslinic acid. Since maslinic acid suppresses COX-2 expression in Raji cells at concentrations that also lowered the NF- κB (p65) and AP-1 binding activity, it is possible that the suppression of COX-2 by this natural triterpenoid might be achieved, at least in part, via the NF- κB and AP-1 signaling pathways.
13 α,21-Dihydroeurycomanone (1), a known quassinoid of Eurycoma longifolia Jack was recrystallized from chloroform into a novel crystal structure in space group P2 (1). Its X-ray data were compared with those of eurycomanone ( 2). Following intraperioneal injections at similar doses of 2.44 µmol/kg/day for 3 consecutive days, 2 displayed comparable potency with tamoxifen but was more potent than 1 in the anti-estrogenic effect against 17 α-ethynylestradiol (EE)-induced uterotrophy of immature rats.