In order to understand feeding ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in damselfish species Abudefduf bengalensis and A. sexfasciatus collected in the Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged from 49.5% to 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 47.4% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 3.1% to 6.0%. Palmitic acid (16:0) was the most common in SAFA, oleic acid (C18:1ω9c) was the dominant in MUFA and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) showed the highest proportion in PUFA. Fatty acid concentrations, especially in SAFA and MUFA, could be related to physiological condition, sexual development, and recent feeding events. The diet shift revealed by the fatty acid composition suggests changes in habitat use and migration scale in coral reef environment of genus Abudefduf.
In order to understand trophic ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition and levels were examined in the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in the Malaysian South China Sea.
In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea.
This article provides raw datasets of the coral reefs status in Pulau Bidong, southern of South China Sea before and after being strike by the tropical storm Pabuk on January 2019. Data were collected using a rapid coral survey method called Coral Video Transect (CVT) technique. The data were collected along a 100 m transect line set up parallel to the shoreline and at a constant depth. In total, eight transects were surveyed during both periods (pre - August 2016, post - March 2019). Back in laboratory, the footage was then extracted into non-overlapping frames or still images prior to image analysis using Coral Point Count with Excel Extension (CPCe) software. The benthic coral reefs relative percentage cover was automatically generated after the image analysis and represented by five major categories; live coral (C), algae (ALG), other invertebrates (OT), dead coral (DC), and sand silt and rock (SR). Live coral cover was identified up to the genus level. This raw dataset was used in this article. The data provided in this article could be of significant use for future studies especially on coral recovery after the natural disturbances. It can provide a baseline assessment especially for coral reefs management as well as to comprehend changes in coral health status in the face of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The data presented here support the information in the article Safuan et al. (2020).
This study investigates the presence of microplastics in surface seawater and zooplankton at five different locations off the Terengganu coast in Malaysia, southern South China Sea. A total of 983 microplastic particles, with an average abundance of 3.3 particles L-1 were found in surface seawater. An average of one plastic particle was detected in 130 individuals from 6 groups of zooplankton. These groups include fish larvae, cyclopoid, shrimps, polychaete, calanoid and chaetognath where they ingested 0.14, 0.13, 0.01, 0.007, 0.005 and 0.003 particle per individual, respectively. Microplastics in the form of fragments are the most common type of ingested microplastics that ranged between 0.02 mm (cyclopoid) - 1.68 mm (shrimp and zoea). Contrastingly, fibers, which are identified as polyamide are the main type of microplastics that dominate in seawater.
The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the coastal waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no site has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around coastal areas should be given a priority in the future.
Emerging booster biocides contamination raises particular attention in the marine ecosystem health. This study provides the baseline data on the occurrence of Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamiono-s-triazine) in the selected coastal water around Malaysia. The maximum detected concentration of Irgarol was 2021 ng/L at Klang West, commercial and cargo port. Coral reef Islands (Redang and Bidong) were relatively less contaminated compared to other coastal areas. The temporal variation revealed that only 1% of 28 stations sampled on November, 2011 was above the environmental risk limit of 24 ng/L as suggested by Dutch Authorities, while in January and April, 2012; 46% and 92% of the stations were above the limit respectively. The present findings demonstrate the wide detection of novel antifouling materials Irgarol-1051 which advocates the need for proper monitoring and conservation strategies for the coastal resources.
Irgarol 1051 and diuron are photosystem II inhibitors in agricultural activities and antifouling paints in the shipping sector. This study focused on three major ports (western, southern, and eastern) surrounding Peninsular Malaysia to construct the distribution of both biocides on the basis of the seasonal and geographical changes. Surface seawater samples were collected from November 2011 to April 2012 and pretreated using the solid-phase extraction technique followed by quantification with GC-MS and LC-MS-MS for Irgarol 1051 and diuron, respectively. Generally, the distribution of Irgarol 1051 was lowest during November 2011 and highest during April 2012, and similar patterns were observed at all ports, whereas the distribution of diuron was rather vague. The increasing pattern of Irgarol 1051 from time to time is probably related to its accumulation in the seawater as a result of its half-life and consistent utilization. On the basis of the discriminant analysis, the temporal distribution of Irgarol 1051 varied at Klang North Port, Klang South Port, and Pasir Gudang Port, whereas diuron was temporally varied only at Kemaman Port. Furthermore, Irgarol 1051 was spatially varied during November 2011, whereas diuron did not show any significant changes throughout all sampling periods. Ecological risk assessment exhibited a high risk for diuron and Irgarol 1051, but Irgarol 1051 should be of greater concern because of its higher risk compared to that of diuron. Thus, it is recommended that the current Malaysian guidelines and regulations of biocide application should be reevaluated and improved to protect the ecosystem, as well as to prevent ecological risks to the aquatic environment.
Pulau Redang and Pulau Tioman have experienced huge tourism growth over the last two decades, but minimal sewage treatment may threaten the resilience of their coral reefs. This study uses stable isotope techniques to identify suitable bioindicators of sewage nutrients (δ15N) at these islands by measuring macroalgae (Lobophora spp.), gastropods (Drupella spp.), scleractinian coral (Acropora spp.), and leather coral (Sinularia spp.). At tourist hubs using seepage septic tank systems, enrichment of Acropora δ15N (Redang, +0.7‰) and Sinularia δ15N (Tioman, +0.4‰) compared to pristine background levels indicate enhanced sewage nutrient discharge. Carbon isotopes and survey data suggest that sedimentation did not confound these δ15N trends. Potential damaging effects of sewage discharge on the coral reef communities at both islands are highlighted by strong correlations between Acropora δ15N and regional variation in coral reef community structure, and exclusive occurrence of degraded reefs at regions of high sewage influence.