Broad interest in developing new hemostatic technologies arises from unmet needs in mitigating uncontrolled hemorrhage in emergency, surgical, and battlefield settings. Although a variety of hemostats, sealants, and adhesives are available, development of ideal hemostatic compositions that offer a range of remarkable properties including capability to effectively and immediately manage bleeding, excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability, antibacterial effect, and strong tissue adhesion properties, under wet and dynamic conditions, still remains a challenge. Benefiting from tunable mechanical properties, high porosity, biocompatibility, injectability and ease of handling, polymeric hydrogels with outstanding hemostatic properties have been receiving increasing attention over the past several years. In this review, after shedding light on hemostasis and wound healing processes, the most recent progresses in hydrogel systems engineered from natural and synthetic polymers for hemostatic applications are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Most studies described used in vivo models with accessible and compressible wounds to assess the hemostatic performance of hydrogels. The challenges that need to be tackled to accelerate the translation of these novel hemostatic hydrogel systems to clinical practice are emphasized and future directions for research in the field are presented.
Surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) has been introduced with lauric acid and oleic acid via co-precipitation and thermal decomposition methods, respectively. This modification is required to increase the stability of SPIONs when incorporated in hydrophobic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). In this work, the solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion-solvent extraction/evaporation method was utilized to fabricate magnetic polymer microspheres incorporating SPIONs in PHBV. The prepared magnetic PHBV microspheres exhibited particle sizes <1 µm. The presence of functional groups of lauric acid, oleic acid and iron oxide in the PHBV microspheres was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to further confirm the success of the combination of modified SPIONs and PHBV. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PHBV microspheres were incorporated with SPIONsLauric as compared with SPIONsOleic. This was also proven via magnetic susceptibility measurement as a higher value of this magnetic property was detected for PHBV/SPIONsLauric microspheres. It was revealed that the magnetic PHBV microspheres were non-toxic when assessed with mouse embryotic fibroblast cells (MEF) at different concentrations of microspheres. These results confirmed that the fabricated magnetic PHBV microspheres are potential candidates for use in biomedical applications.
A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.
This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa).