Natural autoantibodies are normal components of the humoral arm of the immune system found in clinically healthy individuals. There are two subpopulations of natural antibodies, including an overt group of antibodies that are readily detected in unfractionated normal human sera. The other natural antibody subgroup is revealed by physico or biochemical treatment of normal human sera in vitro. Unmasking of this latter cryptic natural autoantibodies (cNA) may occur in vivo by local factors in the tissue environment of disease states. The masking cryptic factors may be immunoglobulin (Ig) or non-Ig in nature. These factors may either be co-inhibitors or co-enhancers of cNA. In the heat-potentiated binding of natural anti-phospholipid antibodies, apolipoprotein H (beta 2-glycoprotein I) appears to act as a co-enhancer. The immuno-relationship between the in vitro and in vivo cNA phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
Non-reactive SLE sera in an ELISA for anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) retested positive in the immunoassay when the sera were first heat-inactivated at 56 degrees C for 30 minutes. This was not a false positive phenomenon since the positive ELISA reactivity of the heated SLE sera was markedly reduced by inhibition with the cardiolipin antigen. Furthermore, the heat-potentiated ELISA reaction was abolished by prior IgG depletion of the SLE sera with Protein A preparation. The unmasked aCL in the heat-treated SLE sera also exhibited selective binding in ELISA to other negatively-charged phospholipids, namely phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid but not against either phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The data strongly indicate an interaction between antiphospholipid antibodies and heat-sensitive serum component(s), a reduction of the latter resulting in the ELISA detection of the autoantibody.
Normal human sera (NHS), heat-inactivated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, demonstrated positive ELISA reactions for anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies. The heat-induced reactivity in ELISA was inhibitable by the cardiolipin antigen and was abolished by prior IgG depletion of the heated NHS with a protein A preparation. The heat-potentiated aCL also cross-reacted selectively with phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, but not with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine.
The anti-phospholipid antibody (aPL) in 26 heat-inactivated normal human sera (NHS) was tested for IgG subclass in ELISA. The specific antibody in NHS included all four IgG antibody subclasses, as well as IgA. The incidence of IgG subclasses ranged from 50% (13/26) for IgG1 to 92% (24/26) for IgG2. Specific IgA anti-phospholipid antibody (aPL) was detected by ELISA in 38% (28/73) of normal human saliva. The salivary IgA aPL bound preferentially to anionic phospholipids including cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid but not to phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin. Unlike aPL in normal human sera, aPL in saliva was predominantly not associated with the previously described heat-labile inhibitor of aPL. This may indicate a role of salivary IgA aPL in local immunity by binding to cross-reactive bacterial cell surface components including phospholipids.
Heat-sensitive serum masking cofactor(s) of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) in normal human sera (NHS) are specifically inactivated at 56 degrees C. The degree of binding in ELISA by unmasked aPL in NHS was equivalent to that in non-heated, aPL-reactive autoimmune SLE sera. Previously "negative" SLE sera also reacted equally strongly in the aPL ELISA when similarly heat-inactivated. Isotype studies by ELISA of the heat-potentiated aPL in 36 NHS revealed the presence of specific IgG (34/36), IgM (11/36) and IgA (24/36) aPL antibodies. 11/36 (31%) NHS had all three aPL isotypes while 13/36 (36%) had both IgG and IgA antibodies to phospholipid.
The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex) of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.
The use of a high quercetin dose to demonstrate its absorption and bioavailability does not reflect the real dietary situation because quercetin glycosides are usually present in small amounts in the human diet. This study aimed to demonstrate the absorption and bioavailability of quercetin in mulberry leaves that represents a more physiologic dietary situation. Mulberry leaf ethanol extract was prepared similar to tea infusion, which is the way the tea leaves are generally prepared for consumption. Accordingly, rats were fed by oral intubation the mulberry leaf ethanol extract (15 g%/rat per day) or pure rutin (135 microg/rat per day) for 2 weeks. The control group received a similar volume of the vehicle, 10% ethanol. There was a significant increase in total antioxidant activity (TAA) in the urine and feces of the antioxidants-fed rats. Phenylacetic acid, a microbial metabolite of quercetin, was detected in the urine of the test animals, and quercetin was present in the fecal samples. By using an in situ intestinal preparation, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, another microbial metabolite of quercetin, was detected in the plasma when the duodenal segment was instilled with 2 mg of rutin. This microbial metabolite retained 50% of the TAA of quercetin. The results of this study indicate that in a more realistic dietary situation, an increase in TAA in the body after consumption of quercetin-containing foods is contributed mainly by the microbial metabolites.
The ability of the antioxidants in the mulberry leaves to protect Sprague-Dawley rats from injuries caused by immobilization stress was studied as an indicator of the tissue bioavailability of antioxidants. Nitrite level, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity (TAA) in the plasma and tissues were measured. There were hypertrophy of the adrenal glands and kidneys, significant increased levels of nitrite in the plasma and adrenal glands, elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the plasma, kidneys and spleen, and a reduction of TAA in the plasma, liver, adrenal glands, kidneys and spleen of the immobilized rats. Antioxidants in the mulberry leaf extract suppressed the increase of nitrite and TBARS. Adrenal glands appeared to be the target organ of the antioxidants in the leaf extract. The low dose mulberry antioxidants were more effective than pure rutin (4 mg/day) to protect the cells against inflammation and peroxidation induced by stress.
Inhibition studies were carried out to study possible cross-reactivity between a peptide fragment of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen, EBNA-1, and keratin/collagen. The 20-amino acid peptide (pAG), derived from a glycine-alanine repeat region of EBNA-1, uniquely makes up about one-third of the viral protein and is a dominant IgA antigenic epitope in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A small percentage of normal human sera (NHS) also binds pAG and this reactivity is examined in this study. Ten percent (2/20) and 13.4% (2/15) of IgA-pAG-positive NPC sera and NHS, respectively, were significantly inhibited by keratin in a competitive ELISA system. Conversely, 31.6% (6/19) and 30.8% (4/13) of IgA-keratin-positive NPC sera and NHS, respectively, were significantly inhibited by pAG. This indicated minimum cross-reactivity between IgA serum antibodies to EBNA-1 and keratin. Using collagen as inhibitor, none of 18 and only 2/13 IgA-pAG-positive NPC sera and NHS, respectively, were inhibited. In the collagen ELISA system, only 2/19 (10.5%) and 4/25 (16%) of IgA-collagen-positive NPC sera and NHS, respectively, were inhibited with pAG. Therefore, cross-reactivity with collagen was also low. IgA-pAG-positive NHS may therefore not be a false positive phenomenon, but whether it may represent an early serological profile related to NPC carcinogenesis remains to be determined.
Heat treatment of sera at 56 degrees C for 30 min results in positive ELISA reactions for anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) in sera that had undetectable or low levels of aCL before heat inactivation. The positive, potentiated reactivity of the heated sera in the aCL ELISA could be inhibited with the cardiolipin antigen and was abolished by prior IgG depletion using staphylococcal protein A. The heat-potentiating effect of aCL binding in ELISA was evident in both normal human sera and clinical sera including sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and syphilis.