Biohydrogen production has received widespread attention from researchers in industry and academic fields. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effects of several key variables in anaerobic fermentation of glucose with Clostridium butyrium, and achieved the highest production rate and yield of hydrogen. Highest H2 yield of 2.02 mol H2/mol-glucose was achieved from 24 h bottle fermentation of glucose at 35 °C, while the composition of medium was (g/L): 15.66 glucose, 6.04 yeast extract, 4 tryptone, 3 K2HPO4, 3 KH2PO4, 0.05 L-cysteine, 0.05 MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 MnSO4·H2O and 0.3 FeSO4·7H2O, which was very different from that for cell growth. Sugarcane bagasse and Jatropha hulls were selected as typical tropical biomass wastes to produce sugars via a two-step acid hydrolysis for hydrogen production. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, H2 yield (mol H2/mol-total reducing sugar) was 2.15 for glucose, 2.06 for bagasse hydrolysate and 1.95 for Jatropha hull hydrolysate in a 3L fermenter for 24 h at 35 °C, with H2 purity of 49.7-64.34%. The results provide useful information and basic data for practical use of tropical plant wastes to produce hydrogen.
Copper nanowires (CuNWs) with a high aspect ratio of ~2600 have been successfully synthesized by using a facile hydrothermal method. The reductions of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and methylene blue (MB) to leucomethylene blue (LMB) by using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) were used as models to test the catalytic activity of CuNWs. We showed that by increasing the CuNWs content, the rate of reduction increased as well. The CuNWs showed an excellent catalytic performance where 99% reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP occurred in just 60 s by using only 0.1 pg of CuNWs after treatment with glacial acetic acid (GAA). The rate constant (kapp) and activity factor (K) of this study is 18 and ~1010 fold in comparison to previous study done with no GAA treatment applied, respectively. The CuNWs showed an outstanding catalytic activity for at least ten consecutive reusability tests with a consistent result in 4-NP reduction. In clock reaction of MB, approximately 99% of reduction of MB into LMB was achieved in ~5 s by using 2 μg CuNWs. Moreover, the addition of NaOH can improve the rate and degree of recolorization of LMB to MB.
: Hydrogen (H2) is a clean energy carrier which can help to solve environmental issues with the depletion of fossil fuels. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is a promising candidate material for solid state hydrogen storage due to its huge hydrogen storage capacity and nontoxicity. However, the hydrolysis of NaBH4 usually requires expensive noble metal catalysts for a high H2 generation rate (HGR). Here, we synthesized high-aspect ratio copper nanowires (CuNWs) using a hydrothermal method and used them as the catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 to produce H2. The catalytic H2 generation demonstrated that 0.1 ng of CuNWs could achieve the highest volume of H2 gas in 240 min. The as-prepared CuNWs exhibited remarkable catalytic performance: the HGR of this study (2.7 × 1010 mL min-1 g-1) is ~3.27 × 107 times higher than a previous study on a Cu-based catalyst. Furthermore, a low activation energy (Ea) of 42.48 kJ mol-1 was calculated. Next, the retreated CuNWs showed an outstanding and stable performance for five consecutive cycles. Moreover, consistent catalytic activity was observed when the same CuNWs strip was used for four consecutive weeks. Based on the results obtained, we have shown that CuNWs can be a plausible candidate for the replacement of a costly catalyst for H2 generation.
Wastewater generated from industries seriously impacts the environment. Conventional biological and physiochemical treatment methods for wastewater containing organic molecules have some limitations. Therefore, identifying other alternative methods or processes that are more suitable to degrade organic molecules and lower chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater is necessary. Heterogeneous Fenton processes and persulfate (PS) oxidation are advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that degrade organic pollutants via reactive radical species. Therefore, in this study, limonite powder was incorporated into porous regenerated chitosan fibers and further used as a heterogeneous catalyst to decompose methylene blue (MB) via sulfate radical-based AOPs. Limonite was used as a heterogeneous catalyst in this process to generate the persulfate radicals (SO4-·) that initiate the decolorization process. Limonite-chitosan fibers were produced to effectively recover the limonite powder so that the catalyst can be reused repeatedly. The formation of limonite-chitosan fibers viewed under a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that the limonite powder was well distributed in both the surface and cross-section area. The effectiveness of limonite-chitosan fibers as a catalyst under PS activation achieved an MB decolorization of 78% after 14 min. The stability and reusability of chitosan-limonite fibers were evaluated and measured in cycles 1 to 10 under optimal conditions. After 10 cycles of repeated use, the limonite-chitosan fiber maintained its performance up to 86%, revealing that limonite-containing chitosan fibers are a promising reusable catalyst material.
Background: Chorioamnionitis complicates about 1−5% of deliveries at term and causes about one-third of stillbirths. CXC-chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) binds IL-8 with high affinity and regulates neutrophil recruitment. We aimed to determine the immunoexpression of CXCR1 in placentas with chorioamnionitis, and its association with adverse perinatal outcomes. Methods: A total of 101 cases of chorioamnionitis and 32 cases of non-chorioamnionitis were recruited over a period of 2 years. CXCR1 immunohistochemistry was performed, and its immunoexpression in placentas was evaluated. The adverse perinatal outcomes included intrauterine death, poor APGAR score, early neonatal death, and respiratory complications. Results: Seventeen cases (17/101, 16.8%) with chorioamnionitis presented as preterm deliveries. Lung complications were more common in mothers who were >35 years (p = 0.003) and with a higher stage in the foetal inflammatory response (p = 0.03). Notably, 24 cases (23.8%) of histological chorioamnionitis were not detected clinically. Interestingly, the loss of CXCR1 immunoexpression in the umbilical cord endothelial cells (UCECs) was significantly associated with foetal death (p = 0.009). Conclusion: The loss of CXCR1 expression in UCECs was significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and could be used as a biomarker to predict adverse perinatal outcomes in chorioamnionitis. Further study is warranted to study the pathophysiology involved in the failure of CXCR1 expression in these cells.