Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient.
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to examine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men (MVATL/MVATG) among a group of medical students in Malaysia.
METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study of 173 medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The participants were given the MVATL/MVATG, Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IATH), Homosexuality Attitude Scale (HAS) and the English version of Attitude toward Lesbians and Gay Men. Two weeks later, these students were given the MVATLG again.
RESULTS: Significant correlation was found between the individual scores of MVATL and MVATG with IATH and HAS in the results. The scale was able to differentiate Muslim and Non-Muslim subjects. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of both the MVATL and MVATG were good, at 0.76 and 0.82, respectively. The parallel form reliability (Pearson's correlation) of MVATL was 0.0.73 and 0.74 for MVATG. The test-retest reliability of MVATL/MVATG was good (Intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.67 for MVATL and 0.60 for MVATG).
DISCUSSION: The MVATLG demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring attitudes toward homosexuality among a group of medical students in Malaysia and it could be used as a simple instrument on young educated Malaysian adults.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; attitude; gay men; homosexuality; lesbians; validation
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for female sexual desire disorder (FSDD) among healthcare personnel at selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
METHODS: Two hundred and one female healthcare workers from three large tertiary hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
RESULTS: The prevalence of FSDD was 18.9%. Women with low sexual desire were more likely to have higher educational attainment (OR = 3.06; 95% CI; 1.22-7.66), lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 12.81; 95% CI; 4.43-37.83), two or more children (OR = 3.05; 95% CI; 1.02-9.09), duration of marriage of 20 years or more (OR = 2.62; 95% CI; 1.27-5.40), and a spouse with ED (OR = 2.86; 95% CI; 1.08-7.56).
DISCUSSION: FSDD is common among female healthcare personnel in Malaysia, affecting nearly one in five women. The implication of low sexual desire is important in terms of contributing to a meaningful sexual relationship, and indirectly affects the quality of life of the healthcare personnel.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; healthcare personnel; prevalence; risk factor; sexual desire disorder
Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of patients with first episode schizophrenia in Malaysia. Out of 394 patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia and registered with the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) in 2004⁻2005, 174 patients consented to participate in the study. They were interviewed using a Schizophrenia outcome questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III). (3) Results: All patients’ weight, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure are significantly increased. Sixty-three subjects (36.2%) developed metabolic syndrome while 36 (23.2%) were hypertensive, and 41 (28.1%) were diabetic. Use of fluphenthixol depot (CI = 1.05⁻5.09, OR: 0.84, p = 0.039), reduced physical activity (CI = 0.13⁻1.00, OR: −1.04, p = 0.049), and substance use disorder (CI = 1.40, 13.89, OR: 1.48, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome based on univariate analysis. In further multivariate analysis, comorbid substance abuse was the only significant factor associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for physical activity and intramuscular depot. (4) Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of metabolic syndrome. It is important to address substance use problems as an important risk factor of this comorbidity.
A valid method to diagnose depression in palliative care has not been established. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of depression and the discriminant validity of the items of four sets of diagnostic criteria in palliative care. This is a cross-sectional study on 240 palliative care patients where the presence of depression was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM⁻IV Criteria, Modified DSM⁻IV Criteria, Cavanaugh Criteria, and Endicott's Criteria's. Anxiety, depression, and distress were measured with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Distress Thermometer. The prevalence of depression among the palliative care patients was highest based on the Modified DSM⁻IV Criteria (23.3%), followed by the Endicott's Criteria (13.8%), DSM⁻IV Criteria (9.2%), and Cavanaugh Criteria (5%). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the depressive symptoms showed by DSM⁻IV item 1 (dysphoric mood), item 2 (loss of interest or pleasure), and Endicott's criteria item 8 (brooding, self-pity, or pessimism) among the palliative patients, even after adjustment for the anxiety symptoms and distress level. We found that dysphoric mood, loss of interest, and pessimism are the main features of depression in palliative patients. These symptoms should be given more attention in identifying depression in palliative care patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among healthcare personnel in selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at three large healthcare facilities that were selected by convenience sampling. Within each facility, stratified random sampling was used to select suitable candidates to participate in the study (n=201). Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
RESULTS: The prevalence of FSD was 5.5%. Women with sexual dysfunction were more likely to be married longer (OR=4.08; 95% CI; 1.15-4.50), had lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR=5.00; 95% C; 1.05-23.76) and had a spouse with ED (OR=24.35; 95% CI; 4.55-130.37). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was the strongest predictor for FSD (AOR=27.30; 95% CI; 4.706-159.08).
CONCLUSION: One in eighteen female healthcare personnel suffered from FSD and presence of ED in the partner strongly impacted her sexual function, negatively. The findings highlight the importance of including the male partner in clinical assessment of FSD.
Medical students are vulnerable to depression and anxiety due to the nature of their academic life. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among medical students and the association between religious coping, religiosity and socio-demographic factors with anxiety and depressive symptoms. A cross sectional design was used for this study. Scales used were the Malay version of the Duke Religious Index (DUREL-M), the Malay version of the Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE) and the Malay version Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-M). 622 students participated in this study. They scored moderately on the organized (mean: 3.51) and non-organized religious (mean: 3.85) subscales of the DUREL, but had high intrinsic religiosity (mean: 12.18). The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 4.7% and 17.4% respectively, which is lower than local as well as international data. Islam, negative religious coping and the presence of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Only the presence of anxiety symptoms was significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Negative religious coping, rather than positive religious coping, has significant association with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Redirecting focus towards negative religious coping is imperative to boost mental health outcomes among medical students.