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  1. Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Alsaab H, Iyer AK, Gupta U
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 02;22(2):314-326.
    PMID: 27671487 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.09.013
    Dendrimers are novel nanoarchitectures with unique properties including a globular 3D shape, a monodispersed unimicellar nature and a nanometric size range. The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting.
  2. Kumar H, Mishra G, Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):203-214.
    PMID: 28521670 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170515113936
    BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo; to overcome this barrier, intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain.

    METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.

    RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.

    CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.

  3. Khan I, Kumar H, Mishra G, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(35):5315-5326.
    PMID: 28875848 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170829164828
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease. Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology.

    METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.

    RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.

  4. Kesharwani P, Gothwal A, Iyer AK, Jain K, Chourasia MK, Gupta U
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 Jul 08.
    PMID: 28697371 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2017.06.009
    Highly controllable dendritic structural design means dendrimers are a leading carrier in drug delivery applications. Dendrimer- and other nanocarrier-based hybrid systems are an emerging platform in the field of drug delivery. This review is a compilation of increasing reports of dendrimer interactions, such as dendrimer-liposome, dendrimer-carbon-nanotube, among others, known as hybrid carriers. This should prompt entirely new research with promising results for these hybrid carriers. It is assumed that such emerging hybrid nanosystems - from combining two already-established drug delivery platforms - could lead the way for the development of newer delivery systems with multiple applicability for latent theranostic applications in the future.
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