In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
The rise of antibiotic resistance has become a major threat to human health and it is spreading globally. It can cause common infectious diseases to be difficult to treat and leads to higher medical costs and increased mortality. Hence, multifunctional polymeric nanofibers with distinctive structures and unique physiochemical properties have emerged as a neo-tool to target biofilm and overcome deadly bacterial infections. This review emphasizes electrospun nanofibers' design criteria and properties that can be utilized to enhance their therapeutic activity for antimicrobial therapy. Also, we present recent progress in designing the surface functionalization of antimicrobial nanofibers with non-antibiotic agents for effective antibacterial therapy. Lastly, we discuss the future trends and remaining challenges for polymeric nanofibers.
Main limitation of conventional antibiotic therapies concerns the low efficacy to bacteria attacks for long treatment times. In this context, the integrated use of electrofluidodynamics (EFDs) - basically electrospinning and electrospraying - may represent an interesting route to design nanostructured platforms with controlled release to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms in oral implant sites. They allow for the deposition of nanofibres and nanoparticles by different modes - i.e., sequential, simultaneous - for the fabrication of more efficacious systems in terms of degradation protection, pharmacokinetic control and drug distribution to the surrounding tissues. Herein, we will investigate EFDs processing modes and conditions to decorate polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibres surfaces by chitosan (CS) nano-reservoirs for the administration of Amoxicillin Trihydrate (AMX-DHT) as innovative antibacterial treatment of the periodontal pocket.