The main tool for measuring system efficiency in homes and offices is the energy monitoring of the household appliances' consumption. With the help of GUI through a PC or smart phone, there are various applications that can be developed for energy saving. This work describes the design and prototype implementation of a wireless PV-powered home energy management system under a DC-distribution environment, which allows remote monitoring of appliances' energy consumptions and power rate quality. The system can be managed by a central computer, which obtains the energy data based on XBee RF modules that access the sensor measurements of system components. The proposed integrated prototype framework is characterized by low power consumption due to the lack of components and consists of three layers: XBee-based circuit for processing and communication architecture, solar charge controller, and solar-battery-load matching layers. Six precise analogue channels for data monitoring are considered to cover the energy measurements. Voltage, current and temperature analogue signals were accessed directly from the remote XBee node to be sent in real time with a sampling frequency of 11-123 Hz to capture the possible surge power. The performance shows that the developed prototype proves the DC voltage matching concept and is able to provide accurate and precise results.
This article discusses the design and preparation of a modified MXene-based nanocomposite for increasing the power conversion efficiency and long-term stability of perovskite solar cells. The MXene family of materials among 2D nanomaterials has shown considerable promise in enhancing solar cell performance because of their remarkable surface-enhanced characteristics. Firstly, there are a variety of approaches to making MXene-reinforced composites, from solution mixing to powder metallurgy. In addition, their outstanding features, including high electrical conductivity, Young's modulus, and distinctive shape, make them very advantageous for composite synthesis. In contrast, its excellent chemical stability, electronic conductivity, tunable band gaps, and ion intercalation make it a promising contender for various applications. Photovoltaic devices, which turn sunlight into electricity, are an exciting new area of research for sustainable power. Based on an analysis of recent articles, the hydro-thermal method has been widely used for synthesizing MXene-based nano-composites because of the easiness of fabrication and low cost. Finally, we identify new perspectives for adjusting the performance of MXene for various nanocomposites by controlling the composition of the two-dimensional transition metal MXene phase.
This article discusses the application of two-dimensional metal MXenes in solar cells (SCs), which has attracted a lot of interest due to their outstanding transparency, metallic electrical conductivity, and mechanical characteristics. In addition, some application examples of MXenes as an electrode, additive, and electron/hole transport layer in perovskite solar cells are described individually, with essential research issues highlighted. Firstly, it is imperative to comprehend the conversion efficiency of solar cells and the difficulties of effectively incorporating metal MXenes into the building blocks of solar cells to improve stability and operational performance. Based on the analysis of new articles, several ideas have been generated to advance the exploration of the potential of MXene in SCs. In addition, research into other relevant MXene suitable in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is required to enhance the relevant work. Therefore, we identify new perspectives to achieve solar cell power conversion efficiency with an excellent quality-cost ratio.