Stilbenes possess a variety of biological activities including chemopreventive activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the structural activity relationships of six methoxylated stilbene analogues with respect to their cytotoxic effects and antioxidant activities on HepG2 hepatoma and Chang liver cells. The cytotoxic and total antioxidant activities of six stilbene analogues were determined by MTT and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays, respectively. We found that the cis-methoxylated stilbene: (Z)-3,4,4'-trimethoxystilbene was the most potent and selective antiproliferative agent (IC₅₀ 89 µM) in HepG2 cells. For the total antioxidant activity, compounds possessing hydroxyl groups at the 4' position namely (E)-3-methoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene, (E)-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (pterostilbene), (E)-4-methoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene showed the highest antioxidant activity. Structure activity relationship studies of these compounds demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect and antioxidant activities of the tested compounds in this study were structurally dependent.
Itraconazole and fluconazole are potent wide spectrum antifungal drugs. Both of these drugs induce hepatotoxicity clinically. The mechanism underlying the hepatotoxicity is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP), and SKF 525A, an inhibitor of CYP, in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by these two drugs in vivo. Rats were pretreated with PB (75 mg/kg for 4 days) prior to itraconazole or fluconazole dosing (20 and 200 mg/kg for 4 days). In the inhibition study, for 4 consecutive days, rats were pretreated with SKF 525A (50 mg/kg) or saline followed by itraconazole or fluconazole (20 and 200 mg/kg) Dose-dependent increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and in liver weight were detected in rats receiving itraconazole treatment. Interestingly, pretreatment with PB prior to itraconazole reduced the ALT and gamma-GT activities and the liver weight of rats. No changes were observed in rats treated with fluconazole. Pretreatment with SKF 525A induced more severe hepatotoxicity for both itraconazole and fluconazole. CYP 3A activity was inhibited dose-dependently by itraconazole treatment. Itraconazole had no effects on the activity of CYP 1A and 2E. Fluconazole potently inhibited all three isoenzymes of CYP. PB plays a role in hepatoprotection to itraconazole-induced but not fluconazole-induced hepatotoxicity. SKF 525A enhanced the hepatotoxicity of both antifungal drugs in vivo. Therefore, it can be concluded that inhibition of CYP may play a key role in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by itraconazole and fluconazole.
Itraconazole and fluconazole are oral antifungal drugs, which have a wide spectrum antifungal activity and better efficacy than the older drugs. However, both drugs have been associated with hepatotoxicity in susceptible patients. The mechanism of antifungal drug-induced hepatotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to investigate and compare the hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs in vivo. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with itraconazole or fluconazole either single (0, 10, 100 and 200 mg/kg) or subchronic (0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day for 14 days) doses. Plasma and liver samples were taken at the end of the study. A statistically significant and dose dependent increase of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were detected in the subchronic itraconazole-treated group. In addition, dose-dependent hepatocellular necrosis, degeneration of periacinar and mizonal hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis and giant cell granuloma were observed histologically in the same group. Interestingly, fluconazole treated rats had no significant increase in transaminases for both single and subchronic groups. In the subchronic fluconazole treated rats, only mild degenerative changes of centrilobular hepatocytes were observed. These results demonstrated that itraconazole was a more potent hepatotoxicant than fluconazole in vivo in rats.
The effect of phenobarbitone against signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity was studied in 26 male crossbred sheep. Grazing on signal grass significantly decreased the concentration of cytochrome P-450 and the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, viz. aminopyrine-N-demethylase, aniline-4-hydroxylase, UDP- glucuronyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver and kidneys of affected sheep.Oral administration of phenobarbitone (30 mg/kg body weight) for five consecutive days before grazing on B. decumbens pasture, and thereafter, for three consecutive days every two weeks, resulted in significant increases in hepatic and renal activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes. The induction of drug metabolizing activity in sheep grazing on signal grass group was found to be lower than in animals given phenobarbitone alone. Induction by phenobarbitone provided a degree of protection against the toxic effects of B. decumbens as indicated by the delay in the appearance of signs of toxicity. Furthermore, these were much milder compared to those in the sheep not treated with phenobarbitone. The present study suggests that phenobarbitone-type cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme-induction may increase resistance against signal grass (B. decumbens) toxicity in sheep.