Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 290 in total

  1. Aljumah K, Hassali MA
    BMC Psychiatry, 2015;15:219.
    PMID: 26376830 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0605-8
    Adherence to antidepressant treatment is essential for the effective management of patients with major depressive disorder. Adherence to medication is a dynamic decision-making process, and pharmacists play an important role in improving adherence to antidepressant treatment in different settings within the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess whether pharmacist interventions based on shared decision making improved adherence and patient-related outcomes.
  2. Hussain R, Hassali MA
    PMID: 31139421 DOI: 10.1186/s40545-019-0178-x
    Countries all around the globe are working to establish robust pharmacovigilance systems. Whereas the majority of the developed countries have established well-organized pharmacovigilance systems, the developing countries still lack the basic infrastructure to establish such systems. This commentary focuses on the need of pharmacovigilance and its current status and future trends in Pakistan.
  3. Sharrad AK, Hassali MA
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2011 Mar;7(1):108-12.
    PMID: 21397885 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2009.12.003
    BACKGROUND: The use of generic medicines has been increasing steadily internationally, primarily because of cost concerns. Knowledge and use patterns of generic medicines in Iraq have not yet been measured.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore consumers' perception and knowledge on issues relating to generic medicine use in Basrah, Iraq.
    METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to gather information from consumers in Basrah, Iraq. A purposive sample of 14 consumers in Basrah was interviewed face-to-face using a semistructured interview guide.
    RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the interviews identified 5 major themes: understanding of the term "generic medicine," preference for generic medicine, refusal of generic medicine, generic substitution, and education on the use of generic medicines. Not all the consumers were familiar with the term "generic medicine;" they were familiar with the term "commercial medicine." Most of the participants understood that generics cost less compared with their branded counterparts. Most of the consumers said that their physicians and pharmacists had given them information on generics.
    CONCLUSION: Knowledge of generic medicines may be lacking among consumers in Iraq. Development of consumer education on generics by health care providers is required to support the implementation of the policy on generic medicines in Iraq.
  4. Shafie AA, Hassali MA
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Apr;8(2):116-21.
    PMID: 25132879
    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the value of the dispensing service of pharmacists from the general public's perspective using the contingent valuation technique in the State of Penang, Malaysia.
  5. Chan HK, Hassali MA
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2014 Oct;36(5):904-13.
    PMID: 25135804 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-014-0003-1
    BACKGROUND: Inability to read instructions on drug labels has been identified among the Malaysian population since 1990's.
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of font-enlarged and pictogram-incorporated labels used for long-term medications on patients' adherence, comprehension and preferences.
    SETTING: Outpatient pharmacy in one of the major general hospitals across Northern Malaysia.
    METHOD: This was a three-arm, randomized controlled trial. Outpatients with refill prescriptions of selected oral antihypertensive or antidiabetic medications were screened for eligibility. They were randomly allocated with standard (n = 35), font-enlarged (n = 40) or pictogram-incorporated (n = 35) labels. Assessment of baseline adherence scores using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, comprehension scores using a structured questionnaire and preferences was conducted upon recruitment. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted after 4 weeks.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The changes of patients' adherence and comprehension scores and their preferences.
    RESULTS: Within-group comparisons demonstrated an increase of total adherence scores after 4 weeks in all three groups (mean changes 0.35, 0.58 and 0.67; p = 0.029, 0.013 and 0.011, respectively). The repeatedly measured total comprehension score of pictogram-incorporated label group was significantly higher than baseline (mean change 0.37, p = 0.010). Two intervention groups obtained significantly higher scores for few items in both adherence and comprehension measurements after 4 weeks as compared with baselines. As indicated by F tests, three groups did not significantly differ in the changes of both total adherence and comprehension scores (p = 0.573 and 0.069, respectively) with the subjects' age adjusted. Elderlies and those with a higher number of morbidity preferred pictogram-incorporated label over font-enlarged label.
    CONCLUSION: We did not find a significant change of both adherence and comprehension levels after the introduction of modified medication labels. However, on the basis of within-group comparisons, they may have positive influences on certain aspects of patients' adherence and comprehension. Variations in preferences may reflect the unique need of different subgroups in receiving written medication instructions.
    Study site: Outpatient pharmacy, Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
  6. Shafie AA, Hassali MA
    Soc Sci Med, 2013 Nov;96:272-6.
    PMID: 23528670 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.045
    Health care in Malaysia is funded primarily through taxation and is no longer sustainable. One funding option is voluntary community-based health insurance (VCHI), which provides insurance coverage for those who are unable to benefit immediately from either a social or private health insurance plan. This study is performed to assess the willingness of Malaysians to participate in a VCHI plan. A cross-sectional study was performed in the state of Penang between August and mid-September 2009 with 472 randomly selected respondents. The respondents were first asked to select their preferred health financing plan from three plans (out-of-pocket payment, compulsory social health insurance and VCHI). The extent of the household's willingness to pay for the described VCHI plan was later assessed using the contingent valuation method in an ex-ante bidding game approach until the maximum amount they would be willing to pay to obtain such a service was agreed upon. Fifty-four per cent of the participants were female, with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 11.9), the majority of whom had a monthly income of Int$1157-2312. The results indicated that more than 63.1% of the respondents were willing to join and contribute an average of Int$114.38 per month per household towards VCHI. This amount was influenced by ethnicity, educational level, household monthly income, the presence of chronic disease and the presence of private insurance coverage (p 
  7. Hassali M, Shafie A, Khan T
    J Young Pharm, 2012 Jul;4(3):193-8.
    PMID: 23112539 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.100028
    The current study aimed to explore the public views and expectation about a successful communication process between the healthcare providers/physicians and patients in Penang Island, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang Island using a 14-item questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0(®) were used to analyze the collected data. A nonparametric statistics was applied; the Chi-square test was applied to measure the association among the variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of N (500) respondents have shown willingness to participate in the study with a response rate of 83.3%. The majority 319 (63.9%) have disclosed to communicate with their healthcare providers in the Malay language and about 401 (80.4%) of the respondents were found satisfied with the information provided by the physician. It was a common expectation by the most of the sample to focus more on the patient history before prescribing any medicine. Moreover, about 60.0% of the respondents expected that the healthcare providers must show patience to the patient's queries. The level of satisfaction with the information shared by the healthcare providers was higher among the respondents with a higher education level. Furthermore, patients with higher level of education expect that physician shouldwell understand their views and medical history to prescribe a better therapeutic regimen.
  8. Saleem F, Hassali M, Shafie A, Atif M
    J Young Pharm, 2012 Apr;4(2):101-7.
    PMID: 22754262 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.96624
    The study is aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of hypertensive patients toward medication use and adherence. The study was qualitative in nature conducted at Sandamen Provisional Hospital of Quetta city, Pakistan; a public hospital catering to the health needs of about 40% of the population. A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. Sixteen patients were interviewed, and the saturation point was achieved after the 14(th) interview. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework. Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Perceived benefits and risks of medications, (2) physician's interaction with patients, (3) perception toward traditional remedies, (4) layman concept toward medications, and (5) beliefs toward hypertension and its control. The majority of the patients carried specific unrealistic beliefs regarding the long-term use of medication; yet these beliefs were heavily accepted and practiced by the society. The study indicated a number of key themes that can be used in changing the beliefs and experiences of hypertensive patients. Physician's attitude, patient's past experiences, and knowledge related to hypertension were noted as major contributing factors thus resulting in nonadherence to therapy prescribed.
  9. Lee ML, Hassali MA, Shafie AA
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2013 Jul-Aug;9(4):405-18.
    PMID: 22835711 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.05.010
    BACKGROUND: Treatment default among the smokers hinders the effectiveness of the delivery of cessation services. While many studies have predicted the defaulters' characteristics, the reasons why these smokers dropped out and continued smoking are seldom explored.
    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the barriers encountered by such smokers and their respective health care providers (HCPs) in relation to the discontinuation of cessation treatment.
    METHODS: From May 2010 to March 2011, 15 current adult smokers and 9 HCPs from 2 Quit Smoking Clinics (QSCs) in the Melaka Tengah District, Malacca, Malaysia were interviewed on smoking, cessation, and the QSC. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subsequently translated into English and analyzed using thematic analysis.
    RESULTS: The barriers encountered were categorized as Individual- and Clinic-level. Both smokers and HCPs acknowledged that the smokers' low intrinsic motivation was the individual-level barrier. The clinic-level barriers were the mismatched perceptions of smokers and HCPs regarding the HCPs' roles, skills, and attitudes, as well as the availability and efficacy of smoking cessation aids (SCAs). While the smokers viewed the program as not helpful, the HCPs cited the lack of organizational support as their main barrier.
    CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for treatment default centered on the overall dissatisfaction with the treatment (due to the program, HCP, and SCA factors) combined with the smokers' low intrinsic motivation. Optimizing the interplay of the extrinsic motivational cues, such as the HCP and SCA factors, would complement the smoker's low intrinsic motivation and thus encourage treatment retention. However, it is necessary to strike a balance between the individual smoker's needs and the availability of organizational support.
    KEYWORDS: Qualitative; Smoking cessation; Treatment discontinuation
    Study site: Quite smoking clinics, Klinik Kesihatan Ayer Keroh, Hospital Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia
  10. Saleem F, Hassali MA, Shafie AA
    Health Expect, 2014 Jun;17(3):388-95.
    PMID: 22390260 DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2012.00765.x
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of hypertensive population in Pakistan.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 385 hypertensive patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. The EuroQoL EQ-5D scale was used for the assessment of HRQoL. EQ-5D is a standardized instrument for use as a measure of health outcome and is used in the clinical and economic evaluation of health care as well as population health surveys. The HRQoL was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant.
    RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-five (68.85%) respondents were men with 3.01 ± 0.939 years of history of hypertension. Majority (n = 186, 48.3%) were categorized in age group of 28-37 years with mean age of 39.02 ± 6.596. Education, income and locality had significant relation with HRQoL score. HRQoL was measured poor in our study patients (0.4674 ± 0.2844).
    CONCLUSION: Hypertension has an adverse effect on patients' well-being and HRQoL. Results from this study could be useful in clinical practice, particularly in early treatment of hypertension, at point where improving HRQoL is still possible.
    KEYWORDS: educational level; health-related quality of life; hypertension
  11. Khan T, Hassali M, Al-Haddad M
    J Young Pharm, 2011 Jul;3(3):250-5.
    PMID: 21897668 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.83778
    This study aims to identify the patient-physician communication barriers in the primary healthcare setting in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to attain the objectives of the study. A self-developed 17-item study tool was used to explore respondent's perception about the barriers they have faced while communicating with physician. The reliability scale was applied and internal consistency of the study tool was estimated on the basis of Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.58). The data analysis was conducted using statistical package for social sciences students SPSS 13(®). Chi Square test was used to test the difference between proportions. A total of n = 69 patients responded to this survey. A higher participation was seen by the male respondents, 39 (56.5%). About 52 (76.5%) of the respondents were satisfied with the information provided by the physician. In an effort to identify the patient-physician barriers, a poor understanding among the patients and physician was revealed. 16 (23.5%) respondents disclosed lack of satisfaction from the information provided to them. Overall, it is seen that lack of physician-patient understanding was the main reason that result hindrance in the affective communication. Moreover, there is a possibility that a low level of health literacy among the patients and inability of the physician to affectively listen to patients may be the other factors that result in a deficient communication.
  12. Khan T, Hassali M, Tahir H, Khan A
    Iran. J. Public Health, 2011;40(1):50-6.
    PMID: 23113054
    To evaluate public perceptions towards the causes of depression and schizophrenia and identifications of factors resulting stigma towards mental ill.
  13. Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Liau SY
    Qual Life Res, 2011 May;20(4):593-600.
    PMID: 21046257 DOI: 10.1007/s11136-010-9774-6
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of the EQ-5D instrument among the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among Malaysian adults in three northern states of Malaysia. A pre-developed questionnaire consisting of both the EQ-5D and SF-12 items was used for data collection. Concurrent, convergent, and known group validity of EQ-5D were assessed against SF-12 and several known relationships with participants' demographic and illness characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 596 Malaysians participated in the study. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.93 (SD = 0.13), while the mean physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) scores were 48.9 (SD = 7.4) and 49.1 (SD = 8.0), respectively. Participants with a current medical problem had lower PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores and reported more problems with all of the EQ-5D dimensions; they also had lower EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores (P < 0.05). Convergent validity was supported by a moderately positive correlation between EQ-5D and EQ-VAS with MCS-12 and PCS-12 scores; moreover, the stronger effect sizes between PCS-12 and the physical dimensions of EQ-5D as well as between MCS-12 with anxiety/depression scores further supported the convergent validity of EQ-5D. Responses to the EQ-5D dimensions only supported two of the four known group validity hypotheses of higher quality of life among individuals who are better educated and no medical problem. No association was found between income and gender with EQ-5D score.

    CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated acceptable construct validity of the EQ-5D among the Malaysian population.

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