Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

  1. Bian J, Zhu S, Ma W, Li C, Ashraf MA
    Saudi Pharm J, 2016 May;24(3):354-62.
    PMID: 27275127 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.017
    This study is to establish a model of rat tibial osteocarcinoma pain, intrathecally inject specific ERK1/2 inhibitors SCH772984, observe the analgesic effect, and discuss the influence of ERK-P90RSK-Fos signal path in bone cancer pain. Forty female SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Establish a bone cancer pain model after putting the intrathecal tube 5d and determine the rats' mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) after tube 5d; 40 SD rats with intrathecal tube back 5d were randomly divided into 5 groups. Sham Group receives no medication, the other four respectively receive 5% DMSO 10 μl, SCH 0.1, 1.0, 10 μg (SCH dissolved in 10 μl 5% DMSO) intrathecally. Determine the rats' mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) before and after giving medication 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 h, and 2 min spontaneous paw withdrawal. Western blot and immuno-fluorescence determine the expression condition of spinal cord dorsal horn of p-ERK, p-p90RSK and Fos protein. Intrathecal injection of SCH772984 has analgesic effects on rats with bone cancer pain, and the effects enhance with increasing dose; intrathecal injection of SCH772984 10 μg could greatly reduce the expression of spinal dorsal horn Fos protein. Injecting walker 256 tumor cells into rats' tibia could cause behavior changes, such as idiopathic pain sensitivity and pain; the intrathecal tube almost has no effect on motor function of rats; ERK1/2 is involved in bone cancer pain, and intrathecal injection of ERK1/2 specific inhibitors SCH772984 10 μg may effectively relieve bone cancer pain.
  2. Ayob FW, Simarani K
    Saudi Pharm J, 2016 May;24(3):273-8.
    PMID: 27275114 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.019
    This paper reported on the various filamentous fungi strains that were isolated from a wild grown Catharanthus roseus. Based on the morphological characteristics and molecular technique through a Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA sequencing method using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), these fungi had been identified as a Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora sphaerica and Fusarium solani. The ultrastructures of spores and hyphae were observed under a Scanning Electron Microscope. The hydrolytic enzyme test showed that all strains were positive in secreting cellulase. Colletotrichum sp. and F. solani strains also gave a positive result for amylase while only F. solani was capable to secrete protease. These fungi were putatively classified as endophytic fungi since they produced extracellular enzymes that allow them to penetrate plant cell walls and colonize with symbiotic properties.
  3. Qin H, Tang G, Yi P, Pan X, Huang H, Chang R, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2016 May;24(3):265-72.
    PMID: 27275113 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.015
    The present study aimed to establish a genus-specific PCR-based assay to detect helicobacters using 16S rRNA gene as the target template. We designed the hemi-nested primers based on sequences of 16S rRNA gene of 34 types of Helicobacter species. The inclusivity, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCR assay using these primers were examined in three different models, comprising feces simulated samples, BLAB/c mice infection model and clinic patients samples. The detection sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter bilis strains from feces simulated samples was all 102 CFU/ml. We successfully detected H. hepaticus and H. bilis in the liver, cecum and feces of experimentally infected mice. H. pylori was successfully detected in the feces samples from 3 patients infected with H. pylori while not in the feces samples from 3 healthy human. However, the C97/C05-C97/C98 PCR assay detected H. pylori in the 2 positive samples. Due to the PCR assay's excellent inclusivity, high sensitivity and specificity it may be used to detect the presence of Helicobacters.
  4. Akram W, Hussein MS, Ahmad S, Mamat MN, Ismail NE
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Oct;23(5):499-503.
    PMID: 26594115 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.01.011
    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.
    Study site: community pharmacies, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  5. Rayes IK, Hassali MA, Abduelkarem AR
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Oct;23(5):470-4.
    PMID: 26594111 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.02.004
    Pharmacy practice has passed several rounds of advancements over the past few years. It had changed the traditional positioning criteria of pharmacists as business people into patient-centered healthcare professionals. This worldwide shift is increasingly accumulating pressure on UAE pharmacists to turn up into better level of service providing accompanied with higher demand of inter-personal skills and intellectual capabilities. This can be accomplished through stressing the significance of continuing pharmacy education in basic sciences as well as social and administrative pharmacy techniques and its collaboration in elevating the quality of pharmacy practice in the UAE.
  6. Khan TM, Alhafez AA, Syed Sulaiman SA, Bin Chia DW
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Nov;23(6):614-20.
    PMID: 26702255 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.10.004
    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and probability of adverse events associated with the use of 75 mg pregabalin post hemodialysis (pHD) among patients with UP.
  7. Abdellah A, Noordin MI, Wan Ismail WA
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Jan;23(1):9-13.
    PMID: 25685037 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2013.06.003
    Pharmaceutical excipients are no longer inert materials but it is effective and able to improve the characteristics of the products' quality, stability, functionality, safety, solubility and acceptance of patients. It can interact with the active ingredients and alter the medicament characteristics. The globalization of medicines' supply enhances the importance of globalized good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. This review was intended to assess the globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. The review outcomes demonstrate that there is a lack of accurately defined methods to evaluate and measure excipients' safety. Furthermore good manufacturing practice requirements for excipients are not effectively globalized.
  8. Hassali MA, Alrasheedy AA, McLachlan A, Nguyen TA, Al-Tamimi SK, Ibrahim MI, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2014 Dec;22(6):491-503.
    PMID: 25561861 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2013.12.017
    Generic medicines are clinically interchangeable with original brand medicines and have the same quality, efficacy and safety profiles. They are, nevertheless, much cheaper in price. Thus, while providing the same therapeutic outcomes, generic medicines lead to substantial savings for healthcare systems. Therefore, the quality use of generic medicines is promoted in many countries. In this paper, we reviewed the role of generic medicines in healthcare systems and the experiences of promoting the use of generic medicines in eight selected countries, namely the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), Sweden, Finland, Australia, Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. The review showed that there are different main policies adopted to promote generic medicines such as generic substitution in the US, generic prescribing in the UK and mandatory generic substitution in Sweden and Finland. To effectively and successfully implement the main policy, different complementary policies and initiatives were necessarily introduced. Barriers to generic medicine use varied between countries from negative perceptions about generic medicines to lack of a coherent generic medicine policy, while facilitators included availability of information about generic medicines to both healthcare professionals and patients, brand interchangeability guidelines, regulations that support generic substitution by pharmacists, and incentives to both healthcare professionals and patients.
  9. Emeka PM, Al-Omar M, Khan TM
    Saudi Pharm J, 2014 Dec;22(6):550-4.
    PMID: 25561868 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.02.014
    Use of non-prescription antibiotics can portend danger and predispose the populace to changes in bacterial resistance pattern. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of residents of Al-Ahsa community, Saudi Arabia on the use of non-prescribed antibiotics. (b) To identify possible predictors (if any) for self-medication within the community. A cross-sectional survey study, using self-administered questionnaire was conducted in two sections; demographics and self-medication attitude (in form of self-antibiotic use). Questions contained the following outcomes; for demographics; gender, age, education level and common disease within the community. Whereas the second part evaluated sources of information, knowledge of antibiotics, frequency/duration of use, underlined illness in which drug use was employed, names of antibiotics used and awareness of adverse effects of antibiotics. Results revealed that the adult population in the 18-40 year age range constituted about 82.5% of the respondents. Also 18-29 age group made of 60.5% of the respondents and that 56.8% the respondents are university graduates. Cold (18.8%) and sore throat (13.0%) were the diseases commonly found among the community that drove them to using non-prescribed antibiotics. About 337 (72.8%) of the respondent mention the use of antibiotics to treat the illness, and 21 (4.5%) were aiming to prevent the illness. While, 19.4% of the respondents admitted to taking non-prescribed antibiotics for both prevention and treatment of illness. 43.6% of the respondents disclosed that they are not aware of the dangers of using non-prescribed antibiotics. In conclusion the use of non-prescribed antibiotics in this community is evident, as a significant number use them from previous experience for prevention and treatment of illness. Therefore introduction of rational use of drugs will help in limiting the attendant development of bacterial resistance.
  10. Mahmoud MA, Alsowaida Y, Alshammari T, Khan TM, Alrasheedy A, Hassali MA, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2014 11;22(5):411-8.
    PMID: 25473329 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2013.07.005
    OBJECTIVE: To assess community pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors and experiences relating to Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting in Saudi Arabia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 147 community pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    RESULTS: The questionnaire was distributed to 147 pharmacists, of whom 104 responded to the survey, a 70.7% response rate. The mean age of participants was 29 years. The majority (n = 101, 98.1%) had graduated with a bachelorette degree and worked in chain pharmacies (n = 68, 66.7%). Only 23 (22.1%) said they were familiar with the ADR reporting process, and only 21 (20.2%) knew that pharmacists can submit ADR reports online. The majority of the participants (n = 90, 86.5%) had never reported ADRs. Reasons for not reporting ADRs most importantly included lack of awareness about the method of reporting (n = 22, 45.9%), misconception that reporting ADRs is the duty of physician and hospital pharmacist (n = 8, 16.6%) and ADRs in community pharmacies are simple and should not be reported (n = 8, 16.6%). The most common approach perceived by community pharmacists for managing patients suffering from ADRs was to refer him/her to a physician (n = 80, 76.9%).

    CONCLUSION: The majority of community pharmacists in Riyadh have poor knowledge of the ADR reporting process. Pharmacovigilance authorities should take necessary steps to urgently design interventional programs in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of pharmacists regarding the ADR reporting process.

  11. Aljadhey H, Mahmoud MA, Hassali MA, Alrasheedy A, Alahmad A, Saleem F, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2014 Sep;22(4):326-32.
    PMID: 25161376 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2013.08.001
    Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored.
  12. Almalak H, Albluwi AI, Alkhelb DA, Alsaleh HM, Khan TM, Hassali MA, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2014 Apr;22(2):107-12.
    PMID: 24648821 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2013.02.004
    To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  13. Khan TM, Hassali MA, Rasool ST
    Saudi Pharm J, 2013 Oct;21(4):375-8.
    PMID: 24227957 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2012.11.002
    The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of different teaching methods adopted for the practical session of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). CPR training is one of the compulsory modules of the Public Health Pharmacy (PHP) course at Universiti Sains Malaysia. CPR training comprises of 10% of total marks of the PHP course. To test the effectiveness of the different teaching strategies, three groups were defined using a two-stage cohort distribution-i.e. based on grade point average (GPA) and different teaching modalities. Group One was instructed using images and PowerPoint lecture slides. Group Two was instructed using videos and PowerPoint lecture slides. Group Three was instructed using PowerPoint slides with white boards and videos. Students in Group Three were not provided with a hard/soft copy of the PowerPoint slides and were encouraged to write down all the information on their personal notebooks. A 20-item questionnaire was used to assess the students' understanding toward the CPR session. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science Students, SPSS version 13®. Based on the response attained, the comparison of the final score among the groups was undertaken using one way ANOVA. Twenty-seven students have participated in this study. Final evaluation using the questionnaire revealed that student's in Group Three had a better understanding of CPR (18.1 ± 1.5, p <0.001) than the other two. Students' note taking during the lecture and use of traditional chalkboard teaching were found significant to improve the students' understanding and learning in the CPR session.
  14. Ab Rahman AF, Ahmed Abdelrahim HE, Mohamed Ibrahim MI
    Saudi Pharm J, 2013 Jan;21(1):19-24.
    PMID: 23960816 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2012.01.002
    In Malaysia, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service was started in the 1980s. Since then, the number of hospitals that offer the service has increased. In this paper, we report the findings of a nationwide survey describing the practice of TDM in these hospitals. Questionnaires were mailed to 128 government hospitals. Data were collected for general characteristics of the hospitals, administrative, and laboratory activities related to TDM service. One hundred and twenty-one hospitals responded to the survey. Thirty-four hospitals (28.1%) provided the service with their own TDM laboratories, 44 hospitals (36.4%) provided the service using other hospitals' laboratories and 43 hospitals (35.5%) did not provide the service at all. TDM services were more likely to be offered in larger hospitals with various medical specialties. Since it is managed entirely by hospital pharmacists, these pharmacists assume an important role in ensuring optimum use of the TDM service.
  15. Bose A, Wong TW, Singh N
    Saudi Pharm J, 2013 Apr;21(2):201-13.
    PMID: 23960836 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2012.03.006
    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate sustained release (SR) matrix tablets of Itopride HCl, by using different polymer combinations and fillers, to optimize by Central Composite Design response surface methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate drug release pattern of the optimized product. Sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and polyvinyl pyrolidine (pvp) and lactose as fillers. Study of pre-compression and post-compression parameters facilitated the screening of a formulation with best characteristics that underwent here optimization study by response surface methodology (Central Composite Design). The optimized tablet was further subjected to scanning electron microscopy to reveal its release pattern. The in vitro study revealed that combining of HPMC K100M (24.65 MG) with pvp(20 mg)and use of LACTOSE as filler sustained the action more than 12 h. The developed sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet.
  16. Aina A, Gupta M, Boukari Y, Morris A, Billa N, Doughty S
    Saudi Pharm J, 2016 Mar;24(2):227-31.
    PMID: 27013917 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.03.015
    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.
  17. Murtaza G, Khan MY, Azhar S, Khan SA, Khan TM
    Saudi Pharm J, 2016 Mar;24(2):220-5.
    PMID: 27013915 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.03.009
    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may result in the alteration of therapeutic response. Sometimes they may increase the untoward effects of many drugs. Hospitalized cardiac patients need more attention regarding drug-drug interactions due to complexity of their disease and therapeutic regimen. This research was performed to find out types, prevalence and association between various predictors of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in the Department of Cardiology and to report common interactions. This study was performed in the hospitalized cardiac patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan. Patient charts of 2342 patients were assessed for pDDIs using Micromedex® Drug Information. Logistic regression was applied to find predictors of pDDIs. The main outcome measure in the study was the association of the potential drug-drug interactions with various factors such as age, gender, polypharmacy, and hospital stay of the patients. We identified 53 interacting-combinations that were present in total 5109 pDDIs with median number of 02 pDDIs per patient. Overall, 91.6% patients had at least one pDDI; 86.3% were having at least one major pDDI, and 84.5% patients had at least one moderate pDDI. Among 5109 identified pDDIs, most were of moderate (55%) or major severity (45%); established (24.2%), theoretical (18.8%) or probable (57%) type of scientific evidence. Top 10 common pDDIs included 3 major and 7 moderate interactions. Results obtained by multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association of the occurrence of pDDIs in patient with age of 60 years or more (p 
  18. Butt M, Mhd Ali A, Bakry MM, Mustafa N
    Saudi Pharm J, 2016 Jan;24(1):40-8.
    PMID: 26903767 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.02.023
    Malaysia is situated in Western Pacific region which bears 36.17% of total diabetes mellitus population. Pharmacist led diabetes interventions have been shown to improve the clinical outcomes amongst diabetes patients in various parts of the world. Despite high prevalence of disease in this region there is a lack of reported intervention outcomes from this region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist led intervention on HbA1c, medication adherence, quality of life and other secondary outcomes amongst type 2 diabetes patients.

    METHOD: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 73) attending endocrine clinic at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) were randomised to either control (n = 36) or intervention group (n = 37) after screening. Patients in the intervention group received an intervention from a pharmacist during the enrolment, after three and six months of the enrolment. Outcome measures such as HbA1c, BMI, lipid profile, Morisky scores and quality of life (QoL) scores were assessed at the enrolment and after 6 months of the study in both groups. Patients in the control group did not undergo intervention or educational module other than the standard care at UKMMC.

    RESULTS: HbA1c values reduced significantly from 9.66% to 8.47% (P = 0.001) in the intervention group. However, no significant changes were noted in the control group (9.64-9.26%, P = 0.14). BMI values showed significant reduction in the intervention group (29.34-28.92 kg/m(2); P = 0.03) and lipid profiles were unchanged in both groups. Morisky adherence scores significantly increased from 5.83 to 6.77 (P = 0.02) in the intervention group; however, no significant change was observed in the control group (5.95-5.98, P = 0.85). QoL profiles produced mixed results.

    CONCLUSION: This randomised controlled study provides evidence about favourable impact of a pharmacist led diabetes intervention programme on HbA1c, medication adherence and QoL scores amongst type 2 diabetes patients at UKMMC, Malaysia.

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