Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Kamal SM, Hassan CH
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1492-506.
    PMID: 24097938 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513503868
    This study examines the prevalence of child marriage and its effect on reproductive outcomes among women in Bangladesh using the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques used in the study yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of child marriage and its impact on adverse reproductive and health outcomes. Overall, 77% of the marriages among women aged 20 to 49 years old took place before the age of 18 years. Women's education is the most single significant determinant of child marriage. Findings revealed that after being adjusted for sociodemographic factors, child marriage significantly (P < .001) increases the likelihood of stillbirth/miscarriage (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.45-2.24) and pregnancy termination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.12-1.38). Programs should aim to retain girls in school for longer periods not only to raise the age at first marriage but also for sound reproductive health and overall social development of Bangladesh.
  2. Kamal SM, Hassan CH
    J Family Reprod Health, 2013 Jun;7(2):73-86.
    PMID: 24971107
    Objective: To examine the relationship between socioeconomic factors affecting contraceptive use among tribal women of Bangladesh with focusing on son preference over daughter.
    Materials and methods: The study used data gathered through a cross sectional survey on four tribal communities resided in the Rangamati Hill District of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. A multistage random sampling procedure was applied to collect data from 865 currently married women of whom 806 women were currently married, non-pregnant and had at least one living child, which are the basis of this study. The information was recorded in a pre-structured questionnaire. Simple cross tabulation, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to analyzing data.
    Results: The contraceptive prevalence rate among the study tribal women was 73%. The multivariate analyses yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of likelihood of contraceptive use. Findings revealed that after controlling for other variables, the likelihood of contraceptive use was found not to be significant among women with at least one son than those who had only daughters, indicating no preference of son over daughter. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that home visitations by family planning workers, tribal identity, place of residence, husband's education, and type of family, television ownership, electricity connection in the household and number of times married are important determinants of any contraceptive method use among the tribal women.
    Conclusion. The contraceptive use rate among the disadvantaged tribal women was more than that of the national level. Door-step delivery services of modern methods should be reached and available targeting the poor and remote zones.
    Keywords: Bangladesh, Contraceptive use, Ethnic tribal women, Sex preference, Logistic regression
  3. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Alam GM, Ying Y
    J Biosoc Sci, 2015 Jan;47(1):120-39.
    PMID: 24480489 DOI: 10.1017/S0021932013000746
    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.
  4. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Salikon RH
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2410-22.
    PMID: 24345848 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513510554
    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients.
  5. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Islam MN
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1467-80.
    PMID: 24097925 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513485786
    This study investigates the factors affecting the timing of antenatal care (ANC) seeking among Bangladeshi women using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 52% of the most recently pregnant women sought skilled ANC. The most pronounced reason for not receiving the services was that it was "not needed." Of the women who sought ANC, 57% entered for ANC at the fourth month or later. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that maternal age, women's education, residence, wealth index, pregnancy intention status, child's birth order, and wanting more children were the important determinants of ANC services utilization. Wanting more children and contraception use were no longer independent contributors to late ANC entry. These barriers should also be addressed as part of health interventions through information education and communication programs to early entry to ANC. The need to reduce financial barriers to care is a major implication of this study.
  6. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Alam GM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1372-88.
    PMID: 23666835 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513486178
    This study examines the factors that influence institutional delivery among women in Bangladesh extracting data from 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. We employed both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses in this study. Findings revealed that, only 14.7% of the women went for institutional delivery and 28.8% births were delivered by trained birth attendance. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of facility delivery. The likelihood of institutional delivery was significantly higher for first-order pregnancy, couples' higher education, the richest, higher autonomy, TV ownership, non-Muslims, who received antenatal care services, pregnancy complications, and urban residents. Government should ensure quality of care, easy accessibility, and availability of all facilities free of cost in the public medical institutions. Women should be informed regarding the long-term benefit of institutional delivery through information, education, and communication program.
  7. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Kabir MA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1321-32.
    PMID: 23572376 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513483823
    This study examines the inequality of the use of skilled delivery assistance by the rural women of Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Simple cross-tabulation and univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. Overall, 56.1% of the women received at least one antenatal care visit, whereas only 13.2% births were assisted by skilled personnel. Findings revealed apparent inequality in using skilled delivery assistance by socioeconomic strata. Birth order, women's education, religion, wealth index, region and antenatal care are important determinants of seeking skilled assistance. To ensure safe motherhood initiative, government should pay special attention to reduce inequality in seeking skilled delivery assistance. A strong focus on community-based and regional interventions is important in order to increase the utilization of safe maternal health care services in rural Bangladesh.
  8. Gul S, Zou X, Hassan CH, Azam M, Zaman K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Dec;22(24):19773-85.
    PMID: 26282441 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5185-0
    This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.
  9. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Alam GM
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2015 Mar;33(1):92-105.
    PMID: 25995726
    The discourse of dual burden caused through underweight and overweight is well-documented globally but this issue and its connection with women's health in Bangladesh is yet to be explored widely. To enrich the current debate, this study, in the context of Bangladesh, examines the patterns, prevalence, and socioeconomic factors influencing the ever-married women of being underweight and overweight over normal weight. Data used in this study have been extracted from the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. To achieve results connected with the research objectives, both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses have been employed. In bivariate analysis, we used seven categories of BMI cutoff points for Asian countries as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the net effect of socioeconomic factors on underweight, pre-overweight, and overweight over normal weight. The results confirm the co-existence of underweight and overweight among women as we found the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, pre-overweight, overweight, and obesity to be 24.1%, 46.7%, 12.8%, 13.5%, and 2.9% respectively. Compared to the richest, the women from the poorest households were significantly (p<0.001) most likely to be underweight (OR=2.75, 95% CI 2.27-3.35) and least likely to be overweight (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.12-0.19) over normal weight. The urban women, compared to their rural counterparts, were significantly (p<0.001) less likely to be underweight (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.91) and more likely to be overweight (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.51) than normal weight. The other socioeconomic grades that were most marked to be underweight and overweight are age, women's education, marital status, age at first childbirth, parity, number of children aged ≤ 5 years at the household, and food security. The findings confirm the dual burden of both under- and overweight. Systematic and regular monitoring and surveillance of the social trajectory of nutritional status of women and men in Bangladesh is crucial to develop opposite strategy that addresses the persistent and chronic problem of underweight and the emerging problem of overweight. The dual existence of both types of malnutrition among women in Bangladesh must be taken into consideration so that public health interventions may be adopted through appropriate policy.
  10. Hassan CH, Karim AK, Ismail NA, Omar MH
    Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove), 2011;54(3):125-6.
    PMID: 22250483
    Ruptured pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of women who have had a vaginal delivery is rare and unpredictable. However, when undiagnosed, this condition could lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a pregnancy at 19 weeks gestation presented with acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock. She was initially thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy with the provisional diagnosis of a ruptured uterus. Intraoperatively, a ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn with ex utero pregnancy was discovered.
  11. Hamzah KA, Ismail P, Kassim AR, Hassan CH, Akeng G, Said NM
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2009 Dec;20(2):15-27.
    PMID: 24575176 MyJurnal
    Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF) is a unique wetland ecosystem with distinct vegetation types. Due to the waterlogged environment, the stand characteristics in this ecosystem are different from those of other inland forests. This paper highlights stand characteristics of a PSF based on our investigation of a 1 ha ecological plot established in a Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR) at Compartment 100, Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. This site is considered a Gonystylus bancanus-rich area. From the inventory, we recorded a total of 49 tree species from 38 genera and 25 families among all trees of ≥ 10 cm in diameter at breast height. Calophyllum ferrugineum var. ferrugineum was the most abundant species, followed by G. bancanus. The forest appeared healthy, as all tree characteristics (crown shape, log grade and climber infestation) generally fell within Classes 1 and 2 (good and moderate categories), with the exception of crown illumination which majority of the trees were rated as class 3 (received less sunlight). The latter finding indicates that most of the trees living under the canopy received minimal illumination. In terms of total tree biomass, we estimated that about 414.6 tonnes exist in this 1 ha area; this tree biomass is higher than in some PSF areas of Sumatra, Indonesia.
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