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  1. Hew KS, Asis AJ, Tan TB, Yusoff MM, Lai OM, Nehdi IA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2020 Mar 01;307:125545.
    PMID: 31654951 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125545
    Corresponding the high presence of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) in refined palm oil, this paper re-evaluated degumming and bleaching processes of physical palm oil refining to reduce the amount of said contaminants. Separation-free water degumming was incorporated into the process, and this significantly (p 
  2. Khor YP, Hew KS, Abas F, Lai OM, Cheong LZ, Nehdi IA, et al.
    Foods, 2019 Oct 11;8(10).
    PMID: 31614487 DOI: 10.3390/foods8100475
    The stability of refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) was studied under controlled heating conditions. RBDPO was heated continuously for 24 h at 160, 170, and 180 °C, with oil sampled at four hour intervals. Thermo-oxidative alterations were measured through various parameters, such as monomeric oxidized triacylglycerols (oxTAG), total polar compounds (TPC), polymerized triacylglycerols (PTG), oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition. After 24 h of heating, the TPC and triacylglycerol oligomers showed a linear increase with heating time at all heating temperatures. At the end of the heating study, more epoxy acids were formed than keto and hydroxy acids. Moreover, caprylic acid, which was not present in fresh oil, was formed in significant amounts. The increase in oxTAG was strongly correlated with the increase in the p-anisidine value and total oxidation value. The decreases in diacylglycerol and free fatty acids were strongly correlated with an increase in PTG.
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