Two field trials in the control of subperiodic brugian filariasis vectors, mainly Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia dives were carried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia. In the first trial, malathion ultra-low volume (ULV) spray was used to control the Mansonia mosquitos in two filariasis endemic villages. Six spray rounds were applied at biweekly intervals at Kampung Rasau and two spray rounds were applied at monthly intervals in Kampung Triboh. ULV malathion spray reduced biting Ma. bonneae population for 3 days after spraying. The biting density decreased to 50% of the pre-treatment level by the 12th - 13th day and reached the pre-treatment level by the 24th - 25th day. Contact bioassay tests on caged Mansonia mosquitos revealed considerable penetration of the malathion aerosol indoors and relatively adequate coverage outdoors. The estimated number of bites per case per day was 1.09 to 4 times less in the sprayed kampung than in an unsprayed control kampung. The parous and daily survival rates of Mansonia mosquitos were not significantly affected by the spraying. In a second trial, chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) was combined with vector control through indoor residual spraying in Kampung Ampungan. The results were compared with the use of only DEC mass treatment in Kampung Sebangkoi and Kampung Sebamban. The combined control measures in Kampung Ampungan reduced the MfD-50 to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of 4 years. In the other two kampungs where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD-50 declined significantly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. The total insecticidal impact for Ma. bonneae was 3.9 to 1 indoors and 2.7 to 1 outdoors. These results indicated that quarterly pirimiphos-methyl indoor spraying used in integrated control could reduce indoor transmission by 3.9 times. The infective rate from the Ma. bonneae dissected in all three kampungs after the interventions, irrespective of DEC treatment alone or in combination with pirimiphos-methyl residual spraying were reduced by two fold. However the infection rate of brugian filarial larvae in Kampung Ampungan was significantly reduced after the use of DEC and insecticide. Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) showed a high significant reduction in Kampung Ampungan (p > 0.001) compared with Kampungs Sebangkoi and Schambam. In Ampungan, the ATP was reduced by 8.5 times indoors after the MDA and insecticidal application and 3 times outdoors. The reduction rate for Sebangkoi and Sebamban both indoors and outdoors were less than 2 fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Successful colonization of Mansonia dives, the principal vector of subperiodic Brugia malayi was established in a field insectary. Mean egg clusters laid on Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, Homalomena cordata and polystyrofoam strips were 12.0, 10.4, 9.5 and 13.7 respectively. However, the mean number of first instar larvae hatched from each egg cluster laid by females on the three plant substrates (range 51.1 to 58.6) was higher than that laid on the polystyrofoam strips (41.8). There were no significant differences in the success pupation and adult emergence rates among the three host plants used as attachment substrates. Adult emergence occurred at a mean of 10.8 days. The first adult emergence was observed at the 25th day after hatching and continued till the 50th day. The 50% mortality rates for the adults were estimated as 8 days for the males and 14 days for the females. The mean gonotrophic cycle ranged from 3.8 to 4.3 days with a mean of 4.04 days. 63.6% of Ma. dives females oviposited in a medium of rat dung and water. The mean incubation period of eggs ranged from 5.2 to 6.5 days with a mean of 5.7 days. The biology of Ma. dives and Ma. bonneae is briefly compared.
A control programme against subperiodic brugian filariasis was implemented in three villages, (Kg. Ampungan, Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban) in Sarawak, Malaysia. In Kampong Ampungan, the mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC-citrate) combined with residual house spraying of pirimiphos-methyl reduced microfilarial rate to 8% of the pre-treatment level and microfilarial density (MfD50) to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of four years. In Kampong Sebangkoi and Kampong Sebamban, where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD50 declined distinctly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. In Kg, Ampungan, we observed a significant reduction of infective biting rate (88.3%), infection rate (62.5%) and transmission potential (88.1%) of Mansonia bonneae at the fourth spray round. The corresponding reduction rates in Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban were 35.3%, 26.7%, 42.2% and 24%, 30.8% and 15.4% respectively. The biting density of the vector was reduced by 79.8% indoors and 31.8% outdoors at the sprayed village, while only a slight decrease in densities (17.9% indoors and 12.4% outdoors) was observed at the unsprayed village. Bioassay tests revealed that pirimiphos-methyl had a substantial fumigant effect on the vector. The integrated control measure in controlling subperiodic brugian filariasis is discussed.
The measurement of the ultimate effects of the microbial insecticides on mosquito density is best obtained by assessment of adult populations. The main aims of this study are: (1) to assess the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) FC Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes on the emergence rate of Mansonia bonneae developed from the introduced first-instar stage larvae and (2) to measure the effect of these two formulations of insecticides on Mansonia adult populations emerging from the natural breeding plots. Bti Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes at the lower applied dosages of 2.3 kg/ha and 1 briquette case/20 m2 respectively achieved 39-40% pupation rates and 31.5-34.2% adult emergence rates. At these low applied dosages, there was little or no direct effect on pupation from the surviving larvae and thereafter on the emergence of adults from the pupae. A two-fold increase in dosage, however, produced a drastic decline in the pupation rate and adult emergence rate. The rates dropped to 6.5% (pupation) and 4.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Bactimos briquettes and to merely 1.5% (pupation) and 1.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Skeetal. In studying the effect of Bti on the field populations of Mansonia mosquitos, two plots each were treated with Bactimos at 1 briquette case/10 m2 and Skeetal at 4.6 kg/ha. A wooden pyramid-shaped screened cage was placed on a cluster of host plants for a period of 2 weeks to trap the emerging adult mosquitoes. There were a total of 24 clusters of host plants in each plot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Levels of immunoglobulins G, A, M and E as well as complement components C3c and C4 have been determined in populations in various endemic areas in Peninsular Malaysia and also in filariasis patients. High immunoglobulin levels were seen. In the microfilarial-negative group IgG was 2009 mg% while IgE was 3967 I.U./ml. In the filariasis group, Wuchereria bancrofti patients had significantly higher levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, namely, 3314 mg%, 804 mg% and 18400 I.U./ml respectively. The significance of these levels is discussed.
The development of Breinlia booliati is described in its natural host, Rattus sabanus and in an inbred strain of laboratory albino rat. The growth of the parasite is similar in both the rat hosts. The third moult occurs between six-eight days and the final moult between 24-28 days. Larvae were recovered initially from the skin and carcass. After five weeks, developing stages were seen only in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, the site of development of the adult worms. Worms became sexually mature by 11-12 weeks and there was considerable growth in length of the female worms after this stage.
Breinlia booliati exhibited nocturnal subperiodicity in its natural host, Rattus sabanus in contrast to experimentally infected laboratory-reared albine rats which showed irregular fluctuations of microfilariae throughout the 24 hour cycle. All the infected albino rats showed a prepatent period between 11-14 weeks postinoculation. Three patterns of microfilaraemia were discerned during the course of infection 38/49 rats displayed a single peak, 4/49 displayed 2 peaks about 12-15 weeks apart and 7/49 showed a sustained high plateau-like pattern of microfilaraemia. Cortisone had no effect on microfilarial levels when administered to rats near postpatency and some at postpatency.
Seven of the 18 species of lowland forest terrestrial and semi-arboreal murids were found naturally infected with Breinlia booliati. Of these, two species, Rattus sabanus and R. cremoriventer, were found to be the most preferred hosts. None of the murids from the highland, field or human-inhabited areas was infected. This could have been due more to the greater scarcity of the vectors in these habitats than to the susceptibility of the hosts. The absence of this parasite in the squirrels examined may be attributed either to host specificity or to the normal activity cycles or vertical stratification of the vectors, separating them in space and/or time from the squirrels. The pattern of dispersion of the parasite is influenced by the wide distribution of suitable hosts, and the hypothesis that the parasite is of forest origin is discussed.
The indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test done with turkey red cells was applied to 173 serum samples obtained from patients and persons exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi in endemic areas of Peninsular Malaysia. A crude extract of adult worms of the rat filaria, Breinlia booliati, was used as the antigen. When a titer of 1:16 was taken as negative, positive IHA test rates in sera from microfilaria-negative persons in endemic areas, microfilaremic cases, and patients with clinical filariasis were 13%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Results of the IHA test correlated well with results obtained with the indirect fluorescent technique.
The indirect immunofluorescence test using sonicated microfilariae of Brugia malayi has been evaluated on 173 sera from patients and persons exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti and B. malayi in endemic areas of Peninsular Malaysia. In the microfilaria-negative group, without signs and symptoms of filariasis 55/62 sera (89%) had titers of 1:16 and less. In the microfilaremic groups and in the amicrofilaremic cases with clinical filariasis, all the sera tested were positive, with the antibody titers ranging generally from 1:16 - 1:256. Cross-reaction tests were done on 16 samples of onchocerciasis sera from West Africa using sonicated antigen as well as antigen-coated CNB1-activated sepharose. Antibody titers were detected in all the sera. The usefulness of the sonicated microfilarial antigen in serodiagnosis of filariasis is discussed.