Two field trials in the control of subperiodic brugian filariasis vectors, mainly Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia dives were carried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia. In the first trial, malathion ultra-low volume (ULV) spray was used to control the Mansonia mosquitos in two filariasis endemic villages. Six spray rounds were applied at biweekly intervals at Kampung Rasau and two spray rounds were applied at monthly intervals in Kampung Triboh. ULV malathion spray reduced biting Ma. bonneae population for 3 days after spraying. The biting density decreased to 50% of the pre-treatment level by the 12th - 13th day and reached the pre-treatment level by the 24th - 25th day. Contact bioassay tests on caged Mansonia mosquitos revealed considerable penetration of the malathion aerosol indoors and relatively adequate coverage outdoors. The estimated number of bites per case per day was 1.09 to 4 times less in the sprayed kampung than in an unsprayed control kampung. The parous and daily survival rates of Mansonia mosquitos were not significantly affected by the spraying. In a second trial, chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) was combined with vector control through indoor residual spraying in Kampung Ampungan. The results were compared with the use of only DEC mass treatment in Kampung Sebangkoi and Kampung Sebamban. The combined control measures in Kampung Ampungan reduced the MfD-50 to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of 4 years. In the other two kampungs where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD-50 declined significantly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. The total insecticidal impact for Ma. bonneae was 3.9 to 1 indoors and 2.7 to 1 outdoors. These results indicated that quarterly pirimiphos-methyl indoor spraying used in integrated control could reduce indoor transmission by 3.9 times. The infective rate from the Ma. bonneae dissected in all three kampungs after the interventions, irrespective of DEC treatment alone or in combination with pirimiphos-methyl residual spraying were reduced by two fold. However the infection rate of brugian filarial larvae in Kampung Ampungan was significantly reduced after the use of DEC and insecticide. Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) showed a high significant reduction in Kampung Ampungan (p > 0.001) compared with Kampungs Sebangkoi and Schambam. In Ampungan, the ATP was reduced by 8.5 times indoors after the MDA and insecticidal application and 3 times outdoors. The reduction rate for Sebangkoi and Sebamban both indoors and outdoors were less than 2 fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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