The insecticide resistance status of 4 strains of adult male Blattella germanica, viz M (Malacca), E (England), F (restaurant) and K (cafeteria) against malathion and bendiocarb compared with a reference susceptible strain (S) was determined by using a modified WHO bioassay method. The results indicated that all the 4 strains were resistant to the insecticides albeit in different degrees. Resistance ratios for malathion ranged from 1.85-41.07-fold, whereas that of bendiocarb ranged from 1.68-4.83-fold. The biochemical microplate enzyme assays technique employed indicated that the resistance in M and E strains were attributed to acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. Multiple resistance was not detected in any of the 4 strains. Parameters of the identified resistance mechanism correlated well with the observed level of resistance. Agar gel electrophoresis showed that variations in esterase isoenzymes did not confer organophosphate and carbamate resistance to the 4 strains.
Field trials were conducted in two residential areas of Petaling Jaya Municipality to test the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of malathion 96% TG and Resigen on Aedes aegypti. Malathion is the currently used insecticide in Malaysia for the control of dengue. The Leco HD ULV machine was used throught the trials. For malathion the flow rate was 90 ml/minute at a vehicle speed of 8kph and for Resigen the flow rate was 200 ml/minute at the same vechicle speed. Malathion was more effective giving higher mortality rates when compared with Resigen. The mortality rate of adult Ae. aegypti outdoor was higher than in the living room and kitchen. Both insecticides did not show promising larvicidal effects.
Dengue vector control still heavily relies on the use of chemical insecticides, and the widespread use of insecticides has led to resistance in mosquitoes. The diagnostic dose is a key part of resistance monitoring. The present study corroborates the discriminating lethal doses of temephos and malathion based on dose-response of known susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus following the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic test procedure. Late 3rd and early 4th instars were tested with a range of larvicides to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC99) values. A slightly higher diagnostic dose of 0.020 mg/liter as compared with the WHO-established value of 0.012 mg/liter was observed for temephos. Meanwhile, a malathion diagnostic dose of 0.200 mg/liter is also reported here since there are no such reported values by WHO. Doubling the LC99 values of susceptible strains, 3 of the 5 wild-collected populations showed resistance to temephos and 2 showed incipient resistance; all 5 populations showed incipient resistance to malathion. The revised and established lethal diagnostic dose findings from the current work are crucial to elaborate on the variation in susceptibility of Ae. albopictus in future resistance monitoring programs in Malaysia.
In an effort to develop a more effective technique in dispersing a microbial control agent, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a truck-mounted ultra low volume (ULV) generator (Scorpion) was used to disperse B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and Bti with malathion. Complete larval and adult mortalities for all tested mosquito species within the first 70-80 feet from the ULV generator were achieved. Beyond that distance less than 50% mortality was achieved as insufficient sprayed particles reached the area. A minimum of 10(3) Bti colony forming units per ml is required to cause 100% larval mortality. The sprayed Bti larvicidal toxins were persistent in the test water 7 days post ULV. The effectiveness of B. thuringiensis jegathesan (Btj), a new mosquitocidal Bt serotype was also evaluated. Similar mortality results as Bti were achieved except that the Btj toxins underwent degradation in the test water, since less than 50% less in larval mortality was observed in 7 days post ULV samples. This ULV method has the potential to disperse Bt and malathion effectively for a simultaneous control of mosquito adults and larvae.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of malathion on the development of Chrysomya megacephala. A total of 12 adult Sprague-Dawley rats was divided into 4 groups. Each animal in the 4 groups was given orally 0 (control), 10, 25 and 50ml/kg body weight of malathion, respectively. Chrysomya megacephala larvae were then allowed to grow on the liver of carcass. Larvae development was estimated by means of weight and length, time of adult emergence and survival rate. Results indicated that for the first 6 to 30 hours, larvae from control group developed more rapidly than larvae feeding on tissue containing malathion. However, the 3 doses of malathion did not exhibit significant impact on larvae length and weight. The time required for adult emergence was significantly greater for malathion-treated colony which was 10 days compared to 7 days in control colony. Control larvae of C. megacephala had higher survival rate compared to larvae exposed to the three different doses of malathion. Analysis of the tissues indicated that all rats and fly samples were positive for malathion. Malathion concentration was highest in liver. It was concluded that the presence of malathion altered the development rate of C. megacephala and thus disrupted normal postmortem interval estimation.
Paddy (unmilled rice), milled rice and maize-bound 14C residues were prepared using 14C-succinate-labelled malathion at 10 and 152 ppm. After 3 months, the bound residues accounted for 12%, 6.5% and 17.7% of the applied dose in paddy, milled rice and maize respectively in the grains treated at 10 ppm. The corresponding values for the 152 ppm were 16.6%, 8.5% and 18.8%. Rats fed milled rice - bound 14C-residues eliminated 61% of the 14C in the faeces and 28% in the urine. The corresponding percentages for paddy and maize were 72%, 9% and 53%, 41% respectively; indicating that bound residues from milled rice and maize were moderately bioavailable. When rice-bound malathion residues (0.65 ppm in feed) were administered to rats in a 5 week feeding study, no signs of toxicity were observed. Plasma and RBC cholinesterase activities were slightly inhibited: blood urea nitrogen was significantly elevated in the test animals. Other parameters examined showed no or marginal changes.
This article demonstrates the first application of a copper-based porous coordination polymer (BTCA-P-Cu-CP) as a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modifier for the detection of malathion. The electrochemical behavior of BTCA-P-Cu-CP/CPE was explored using cyclic voltammetry (CV) while chrono-amperometry methods were applied for the analytical evaluation of the sensor performance. Under optimized conditions, the developed sensor exhibited high reproducibility, stability, and wide dynamic range (0.6-24 nM) with the limits of detection and sensitivity equal to 0.17 nM and 5.7 µAnMcm-1, respectively, based on inhibition signal measurement. Furthermore, the presence of common coexisting interfering species showed a minor change in signals (<4.4%). The developed sensor has been applied in the determination of malathion in spiked vegetable extracts. It exhibited promising results in term of fast and sensitive determination of malathion in real samples at trace level with recoveries of 91.0 to 104.4%. (RSDs < 5%, n = 3). A comparison of the two studied techniques showed that the HPLC technique is unable to detect malathion when the concentration is lower than 1.8 µM while 0.006 µM is detected with appropriate RSDs 0.2-5.2% (n = 3) by amperometric method. Due to the high sensitivity and selectivity, this new electrochemical sensor will be useful for monitoring trace malathion in real samples.
Ficus plants are commonly planted as ornamentals along roadsides in Malaysia. In 2010, Ficus plants in Kuala Terengganu were found to be attacked by a moth, identified as Trilocha varians. The larvae of this moth fed on Ficus leaves causing up to 100% defoliation. This study was conducted to determine the life cycle of T. varians under two different environmental temperatures and to control this pest using two different insecticides. Our findings showed that there were significant differences in the time taken for eggs to hatch and larval and pupation period between low and high environmental temperatures. Results also showed that fipronil had lower LT50 and LT95 than malathion. This study provides new information on the life history of T. varians under two different conditions and the efficiency in controlling T. varians larvae using insecticides. The results of this study are important for future management in controlling T. varians population especially in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
Heterotrigona itama is a Malaysian stingless bee species that actively reared for meliponiculture. This stingless bee is cultivated in a commercial scale for its honey production, propolis and among the greatest commercial potential as crop pollinators. However, this species has been potentially exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic insecticides against pests.The indirect toxicity effect of the post-insecticide had affected the mortalities of H. itama especially, to the foragers. Due to that, a study has been conducted to determine the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) of the selected insecticides against stingless bee forager workers through residual exposure. The bioassay test was conducted to the local stingless bee H. itama at Agricultural Research Station, Tenom. Four commonly used insecticides in crop protection; Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Malathion were tested at five concentrations that diluted with 500 ml of distilled water in three replications for each insecticide. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were obtained from probit analysis after 1-hour dry residues exposure and 24-hour mortality observation. The result shows that; all four tested insecticides were harmful to H. itama through dry residue. Deltamethrin shows the higher value of LC50 (1.256 ml) and LC95 (3.582ml) that make it less toxic to the H. itama than cypermethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, however, as the concentration gets higher it becomes more toxic.
The use of Chrysomya megacephala larvae for detecting malathion for diagnosing the cause of death was investigated. This could prove useful when the visceral organs have become liquefied during decomposition and therefore cannot be sampled. A field experiment was conducted in which C. megacephala were allowed to colonise naturally the corpses of rabbits that had died of malathion poisoning. The concentration of malathion increased gradually during the larval stages of C. megacephala reaching the maximum concentration in the third instar larvae. The concentration of malathion declined during prepupal stage and reached its lowest level among tenerals. The average malathion concentrations in C. megacephala growing in poisoned rabbit corpses left in a sunlit habitat were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those growing on poisoned rabbits left in a shaded habitat. The concentrations of malathion in the different stages of development of C. megacephala were moderately correlated (r = 0.51-0.69) with the administered doses as well as with those estimated in visceral organs. Thus, it would not be reliable to suggest the formulation of mathematical algorithms for relating the concentration of malathion found in the different stages of development of C. megacephala with those found in the visceral organs. However, in the context of forensic investigation, the qualitative detection of malathion in C. megacephala may prove useful in diagnosing the cause of death, since malathion is a common cause of accidental and suicidal deaths.
Bioassay test against malathion had been carried out with larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti. The mosquitoes were under selection pressure against malathion for forty-five consecutive generations. The rate of resistance development was measured by LC(50) and LT(50) values. The larvae and adult females, after subjection to malathion selection for 45 generations, developed high resistance level to malathion, with resistance ratio of 52.7 and 3.24 folds, respectively over control mosquitoes. Cross-resistance towards the same and different groups of insecticides was determined using the F44 and F45 malathion-selected adult females. Insecticides tested were DDT (4.0%), permethrin (0.75%), propoxur (0.1%), fenitrothion (1%), λ-cyhalothrin (0.05%) and cyfluthrin (0.15%). Results indicated that the mosquitoes were highly resistant to DDT and fenitrothion, moderately resistant to propoxur, tolerant to permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin, and very low resistant to cyfluthrin.
Aedes albopictus was bioassayed to determine resistance development to malathion (OP). Two methods were applied, including WHO larval bioassay to determine the susceptibility to lethal concentration (LC), and adult bioassay to determine lethal time (LT). Larvae from colonies that had undergone selection pressure with malathion to yield 50% mortality were further subjected to selection for subsequent 10 generations. Selection of Ae. albopictus with malathion could relatively induce a consistent resistance ratio of 1.0 throughout 10 generations. It was noted that Ae. albopictus larvae showed less susceptibility to malathion compared to adults. The susceptibility test of adult mosquitoes to diagnostic dosage of 5.0% malathion-impregnated paper showed a variety of susceptibility to malathion when compared to the susceptible strain. Bioassay results indicated that the LT50 values of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus ranged between 11.5 - 58.8 minutes for ten consecutive generations. Biochemical enzyme studies indicated that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in esterase level in malathion-selected mosquitoes compared to non-selected control. Electrophoretic patterns of non-specific esterases at different life stages in malathion-selected Ae. albopictus suggested that non-specific esterases do not play a role in resistance of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus.
In this batch study, the adsorption of malathion by using granular activated carbon with different parameters due to the particle size, dosage of carbons, as well as the initial concentration of malathion was investigated. Batch tests were carried out to determine the potential and the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC) in removal of pesticide in agricultural run off. The granular activated carbon; coconut shell and palm shells were used and analyzed as the adsorbent material. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity of 909.1mg/g. The results indicate that the GAC could be used to effectively adsorb pesticide (malathion) from agricultural runoff.
The standard laboratory strain was found to be heterozygous for susceptibility. Hence, an attempt was made to obtain a homozygous susceptible strain in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) using single raft sib-selection method. Lab-bred females of Cx. quinquefasciatus from insectariums, Unit of Medical Entomology were used in the experiment. After blood feeding Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes laid eggs in raft form, ten rafts selected randomly for the test. Each egg raft was introduced into a plastic tray from number one to number ten. Twenty-five third stage larvae from each tray were exposed to 17.5 microl from 500mg/l malathion in a paper cup label number 1 to number ten. In the bioassay, which had 100% mortality, the respective larva in that particular tray was bred to adult stage for the following generation. Less than 7days old female mosquitoes that emerged from F(0) were used in the test. The F(0) and the subsequent adult and larval stage generations were subjected to adult and larval bioassay. After selection for about 10 generations, a homozygous susceptible strain in Cx. quinquefasciatus was obtained.
Larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus were used for the test undertaken for malathion resistant strain (F61 - F65) and permethrin resistant strain (F54 - F58). The results showed that the LC50 for both malathion (F61 - F65) and permethrin (F54 - F58) resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus increased steadily throughout the subsequent five generations, indicating a marked development of resistance. The adult female malathion resistant strain have developed a high resistance level to malathion diagnostic dosage with a resistance ratio of 9.3 to 17.9 folds of resistance compared with the susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus. Permethrin resistance ratio remained as 1.0 folds of resistance at every generation. It was obvious that malathion resistance developed at a higher rate in adult females compared to permethrin. Enzyme-based metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance were investigated based on the biochemical assay principle. From the results obtained obviously shows that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in esterase level in both malathion and permethrin selected strains. Female malathion selected strain has the higher level of esterase activity compared to the female permethrin selected strain at (0.8 to 1.04) alpha-Na micromol/min/mg protein versus (0.15 to 0.24) alpha-Na micromol/min/mg protein respectively. This indicated increased level of non-specific esterase is playing an important role in resistance mechanism in female malathion selected strain. Permethrin selected strain exhibited non-specific esterase activity at a very low level throughout the different life stages compared to malathion selected strain. This study suggests that life stages play a predominant role in conferring malathion and permethrin resistance in Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Laboratory-bred females of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the insectarium, Unit of Medical Entomology, Institute for Medical Research were used in the experiment. The late third stage of the F0 larvae which survived the high selection pressure of malathion, permethrin and temephos were reared and colonies were established from adults that emerged. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were subjected to selection by malathion and permethrin for 40 generations, Ae. aegypti larvae to malathion, permethrin and temephos for 32 generations and Ae. albopictus larvae were selected against malathion and permethrin for 32 generations and 20 generations against temephos. The rate of resistance development was measured by LC50 value. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae developed higher resistance to malathion and permethrin compared to Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. On the whole, permethrin resistance developed at a faster rate than malathion and temephos.
The susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus to chemical insecticides in two field sites in Kuala Lumpur was evaluated using the WHO standard susceptibility test. Less then 7 days old female mosquitos, reared from wild caught females were exposed to discriminating dosages of insecticides at recommended exposure periods. The larval bioassay were conducted using the multiple concentrations and the LC50 value was determined. The results indicated that cyfluthrin is the most effective among all the insecticides tested with LT50 value of 29.95 min and 28.59 min, for the strain from Ampang Hill and Pantai Dalam, respectively. It was surprisingly to note that both these field strains showed 0% mortality when tested against malathion and DDT. The LC50 value indicated that both strains were highly resistant to malathion with resistance ratio of 17,988 folds and 14,053 folds, respectively. This concludes that resistance at larval stages is extremely high compared to adult stages.