Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 10101 in total

  1. Chiang GL, Cheong WH, Samawickrema WA, Eng KL
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1986 Dec;2(4):545-7.
    PMID: 2906991
    Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Coquillettidia crassipes. The highest rate of insemination occurred in 60 x 60 x 120 cm cages and better insemination in laboratory adapted F15 generation. Embryonation and hatchability of eggs ranged from 69.6 to 97.9% and 63.3 to 94.3% respectively. Gravid females laid egg rafts on water in 500 ml breakers with small leaves of Salvinia for resting. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields. At present 21 generations of Cq. crassipes have been reared in the laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  2. Smith CE, Turner LH, Harrison JL, Broom JC
    Bull. World Health Organ., 1961;24(1):5-21.
    PMID: 20604085
    In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  3. Kaiser CM, Kaiser H, O'shea M
    Zootaxa, 2018 Nov 05;4512(1):1-73.
    PMID: 30486224 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4512.1.1
    Since its conceptualization in 1854, 29 species of the colubrid genus Stegonotus have been recognized or described, of which 15 (admiraltiensis, batjanensis, borneensis, cucullatus, derooijae, diehli, florensis, guentheri, iridis, heterurus, melanolabiatus, modestus, muelleri, parvus, poechi) are still considered valid today. Original species descriptions for the members of this genus were published in Dutch, English, French, German, and Italian and, perhaps as a consequence of these polyglot origins, there has been a considerable amount of confusion over which species names should be applied to which populations of Stegonotus throughout its range across Borneo, the Philippines, Wallacea, New Guinea, Australia, and associated archipelagos. In addition, the terminology used to notate characteristics in the descriptions of these forms was not uniform and may have added to the taxonomic confusion. In this paper, we trace in detail the history of the type specimens, the species, and the synonyms currently associated with the genus Stegonotus and provide a basic, species-specific listing of their characteristics, derived from our examination of over 1500 museum specimens. Based on our data, we are able to limit the distribution of S. modestus to the islands of Ambon, Buru, and Seram in the central Moluccas of Indonesian Wallacea. We correct the type locality of S. cucullatus to the Manokwari area on the Bird's Head Peninsula of West Papua, Indonesian New Guinea and designate a neotype for S. parvus, a species likely to be a regional endemic in the Schouten Archipelago of Cenderawasih Bay (formerly Geelvink Bay), Indonesian New Guinea. We unequivocally identify and explain the problematic localities of the type specimens of S. muelleri and Lycodon muelleri, which currently reside in the same specimen jar. We remove L. aruensis and L. lividum from the synonymy of S. modestus and recognize them as S. aruensis n. comb. and S. lividus n. comb., respectively. We remove S. keyensis and Zamenophis australis from the synonymy of S. cucullatus and recognize them as S. keyensis n. comb. and S. australis n. comb., respectively. We further remove S. reticulatus from the synonymy of S. cucullatus, S. dorsalis from the synonymy of S. diehli, and S. sutteri from the synonymy of S. florensis. We designate lectotypes for S. guentheri, S. heterurus, S. lividus, and S. reticulatus. Lastly, we introduce S. poechi, a valid species not mentioned in the scientific literature since its description in 1924. This brings the diversity in the genus Stegonotus to 22 species. We also caution that in a complex group of organisms like Stegonotus any rush to taxonomic judgment on the basis of molecular and incomplete morphological data sets may perpetuate errors and introduce incongruities. Only through the careful work of connecting type material with museum specimens and molecular data can the taxonomy and nomenclature of complex taxa be stabilized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  4. Trang PH, Ooi PT, Zuki AB, Noordin MM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:894952.
    PMID: 23093914 DOI: 10.1100/2012/894952
    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals; Animals, Wild*
  5. Joseph PG
    Malays J Pathol, 1979 Aug;2:15-21.
    PMID: 263418
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals; Animals, Domestic; Animals, Laboratory
  6. Vosdingh RA, Vanniasingham JA
    J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 1969 Oct 1;155(7):1077-9.
    PMID: 5388168
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals; Animals, Zoo*
  7. Nijman V, Shepherd CR
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 12;206:101-106.
    PMID: 28506903 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.05.010
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top. In addition we address legal issues relating to the production and sale of traditional medicine that contain legally protected animals.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four visits were made to Kyaiktiyo, Myanmar, between 2000 and 2017 to quantify animal parts on display and through discussions with vendors to obtain information on medicinal use of these parts.

    RESULTS: Twenty-three species, mostly mammals, were recorded to be used for traditional medicine. The most common were Chinese serow Capricornis milneedwardsii, Asian elephant Elephas maximus, and Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus. Over 600 bodies or body parts were present. Combined, these parts purportedly provided cures or relief for at least 15 ailments or diseases. The most commonly mentioned treatment was that of using rendered animal fats/oils externally to relieve/cure aching joints or muscles. This treatment allegedly provides instant relief to pilgrims after an arduous climb up the mountain. Purported cures for various skin diseases was the next common use for the animal species on offer. Ten of the species observed for sale at Kyaiktiyo are listed as globally threatened, and 15 are protected and cannot be legally traded. Ambiguities in Myanmar's legislation mean that protected animals or their body parts cannot be traded, however traditional medicines can be made out of them provided rules relating to the manufacturing of traditional medicines are adhered to.

    CONCLUSION: This study indicated that animals and their parts continue to be openly offered for sale at Kyaiktiyo to treat various illnesses. Despite these products potential medical, traditional or cultural importance, solutions have to been found on how to ensure that, in line with Myanmar's laws, use of traditional local medicine does not impede the conservation of imperilled species.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals; Animals, Wild*
  8. Haron M, Ismail S
    Pharmacognosy Res, ;7(4):341-9.
    PMID: 26692748 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.159580
    BACKGROUND: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5'- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
    RESULTS: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 μM followed by buprenorphine with an IC50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 μM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 μM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 μM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 μM.
    CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur.
    KEYWORDS: 4-methylumbelliferone; 7-hydroxymitragynine; buprenorphine; glucuronidation; ketamine; mitragynine
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  9. Sabetghadam A, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 May;2(3):181-5.
    PMID: 21808563 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.65514
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.). Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05). Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  10. Bertram DS, Varma MG, Page RC, Heathcote OH
    J. Med. Entomol., 1970 Apr;7(2):267-70.
    PMID: 4393240
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  11. Yap LF, Groves MG
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):229.
    PMID: 4234363
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  12. Dhaliwal SS, Griffiths DA
    Sabouraudia, 1964 Oct;3(4):279-87.
    PMID: 5874144
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  13. Heyneman D, Liat LB, Basch PF
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Sep;20(1):58-9.
    PMID: 4221420
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  14. Smith CE, Turner LH, Harrison JL, Broom JC
    Bull. World Health Organ., 1961;24(1):23-34.
    PMID: 20604083
    In a previous paper the authors reported on the methods and zoogeographical background of a survey of animal leptospirosis in Malaya, giving a broad analysis of results. In the present paper the localities studied in towns and villages, in ricefields, in secondary forest and scrub and in primary forest are compared in detail. In towns and villages infection rates in rats were low, except in a seaport town where the invading R. norvegicus was heavily infected. In ricefields infection is maintained in R. argentiventer, alone or in association with R. exulans. In secondary forest and scrub there is overlap with forest species and the main hosts of leptospires appear to be R. exulans and R. jalorensis. In primary forest giant rats and, to a lesser degree, spiny rats are the main hosts.Ground-living rats appear to be better maintenance hosts than those scrambling on vegetation or arboreal rats. With some exceptions the incidence of infection of a rat species in an area was found to be in direct relation to the proportion that species formed of the total rat population. The critical number of rats for maintenance of leptospirosis in an area is estimated to be about two rats of the maintenance species per hectare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  15. Duratul Ain, Rokiah Omar, Knight, Victor Feizal
    Gangguan visual di kalangan kanak-kanak boleh menjadi serius tanpa intervensi awal. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti prevalens penyebab kepada impairmen visual di kalangan kanak-kanak prasekolah. Sebanyak 21 buah tadika telah dipilih secara rawak untuk menjalani saringan penglihatan. Modul saringan penglihatan meliputi ujian akuiti visual, ujian katup, ujian Hirschberg, pemeriksaan mata luaran dan oftalmoskopi. Kanak-kanak yang gagal saringan penglihatan telah dirujuk untuk pemeriksaan lanjutan. Seramai 479 orang kanak-kanak dengan purata umur 5.30 ± 0.69 tahun telah mengambil bahagian dalam saringan penglihatan. Daripada 43 orang kanak-kanak yang gagal saringan penglihatan, 32 orang (6.7%) disahkan mempunyai gangguan visual. Manakala 8 orang didapati tidak mempunyai gangguan visual dan tiga orang digugurkan daripada kajian kerana tidak bekerjasama untuk pemeriksaan lanjutan. Ralat refraksi (5.8%) adalah penyebab utama kepada gangguan visual di kalangan kanak-kanak prasekolah. Penyebab-penyebab lain ialah ambliopia (1.3%), strabisms (1.0%) dan keabnormalan okular (0.8%). Pengesanan gangguan visual di peringkat awal melalui saringan penglihatan dan intervensi awal optometri adalah penting untuk dilaksanakan di kalangan kanak-kanak prasekolah supaya prevalens gangguan visual dapat dikurangkan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
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