1. Chimarrogale hantu a water shrew new to the fauna of the Malay Peninsula is described. Specimens were collected in lowland forest near Kuala Lumpur, and one specimen from the Cameron Highlands in Pahang, in montane forest.
2. The type shows the character of Thomas's genus Crossogale, but another specimen shows that ofChimarrogale s.s. as understood by Thomas. Crossogale Thomas is therefore synonymised with Chimarrogale Anderson.
3. A key to the known forms of Chimarrogale is given.
Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Coquillettidia crassipes. The highest rate of insemination occurred in 60 x 60 x 120 cm cages and better insemination in laboratory adapted F15 generation. Embryonation and hatchability of eggs ranged from 69.6 to 97.9% and 63.3 to 94.3% respectively. Gravid females laid egg rafts on water in 500 ml breakers with small leaves of Salvinia for resting. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields. At present 21 generations of Cq. crassipes have been reared in the laboratory.
In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen.
Although this paper makes a special appeal to workers in Malaya it will be found interesting and instructive by the many medical men elsewhere who have been perplexed by the confusing nomenclature of rats and related animals. The author describes the following, which are the six common house and field animals of Malaya popularly called "rats ". A. Rodentia: Muridae. (1) Rattus rattus (Sp. R.r. diardi; R. r. argentiventer; R. r. jalorensis. (2) R. norvegicus. (3) R. exulans. (4) Mus musculus. (5) Bandicota bengalensis. B. Insectivora: Soricidae. (6) Suncus caeruleus, the musk shrew which is grossly slandered by being called a rat; it is an insectivore and the author states that there is no evidence of its being concerned in the transmission of any disease. A clear description is given of the habits, external appearance, skull characters, and association, if any, with disease, of each of the above animals. The animals chiefly concerned in the transmission of disease in Malaya are stated as being R. r. diardi (murine typhus), and R. r. argentiventer, (scrub typhus and probably leptospirosis). Plague is not occurring at present in Malaya. Medical men in Malaya are fortunate in being provided in this and other papers with simple practical guides to the local fauna which are important from the public health point of view. [See also this Bulletin, 1949, v. 46, 245, 247.] John W. D. Megaw.
Di dalam kertas ini, pendekatan dalam mentakrifkan ketakpastian titik data melalui pendekatan konsep nombor kabur yang sedia ada dapat diitlakkan. Pengitlakan ini termasuk pentakrifan ketakpastian data yang akan menjadi titik data kabur (titik kawalan kabur) selepas ditakrifkan oleh konsep nombor kabur. Kemudian, kajian ini juga membincangkan tentang proses pengkaburan (operasi potongan-alfa) terhadap titik data kabur tersebut dalam bentuk segitiga nombor kabur diiringi dengan beberapa teorem dan juga pembuktiannya. Selain itu, kami juga turut memodelkan titik data kabur tersebut melalui fungsi lengkung yang sedia ada iaitu fungsi lengkung Bezier. Selepas itu, turut dicadangkan juga ialah proses penyahkaburan terhadap titik data kabur selepas operasi potongan-alfa diimplementasikan bagi memperoleh penyelesaian titik data kabur rangup sebagai keputusan akhir yang turut dimodelkan melalui fungsi lengkung Bezier dengan disertai beberapa teorem bagi memahami bentuk data tersebut.
Makalah ini menunjukkan dua jenis peringkat Persamaan Pembezaan Separa (PPS) dalam versi teritlak daripada kaedah PPS Bloor-Wilson. Modifikasi terhadap parameter a(u, v) dalam persamaan tersebut diilustrasikan melalui beberapa contoh. Kelebihan dan kekurangan terhadap aplikasinya juga dibincangkan.