In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen.
Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Coquillettidia crassipes. The highest rate of insemination occurred in 60 x 60 x 120 cm cages and better insemination in laboratory adapted F15 generation. Embryonation and hatchability of eggs ranged from 69.6 to 97.9% and 63.3 to 94.3% respectively. Gravid females laid egg rafts on water in 500 ml breakers with small leaves of Salvinia for resting. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields. At present 21 generations of Cq. crassipes have been reared in the laboratory.