METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out to determine knowledge on breast cancer and breast self- examination (BSE) practices of 384 females living in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A purposive sampling method was adopted and data were collected via face-to-face interviews based on a validated questionnaire developed for this study.
RESULTS: Among respondents 268 (69.8%) were married and 144 (37.5%) of the respondents reported having a family history of breast cancer. One hundred respondents (26.0%) claimed they practiced BSE. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.000). There was no association with demographic details (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The findings showed that Iranian women's knowledge regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is inadequate. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.
Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four experimental groups to receive NAC, saline, noise, or both noise and NAC. Noise exposure continued for ten days. Saline and NAC were injected daily during the noise exposure, and 2 days before and after the noise exposure. Evaluation of cochlear histopathology and the density of spiral ganglion cells was performed 21 days after exposure.
Results: In the animals exposed to noise, a reduction in the density of spiral ganglion cells was evident in both the basal and middle turns of the cochlea. This improved on receiving NAC treatment (P = 0.046). In the histopathology evaluation, some histological changes, such as disorganised architecture of the outer hair and supporting cells and a slightly thickened basilar membrane, were found in the basal turns in the noise group.
Conclusion: NAC offered partial protection against noise exposure by improving the density of spiral ganglion cells and reducing morphological changes.