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  1. Othman N, Mohamed Z, Verweij JJ, Huat LB, Olivos-García A, Yeng C, et al.
    Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 2010 Jun;7(6):637-41.
    PMID: 20132028 DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2009.0427
    Entamoeba histolytica is the second major cause of liver abscess disease in humans, particularly in developing countries. Recently, DNA molecular-based methods have been employed to enhance the detection of E. histolytica in either pus or stool specimens. In this study, the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect E. histolytica DNA in pus from liver abscess cases were compared with those of indirect hemagglutination assay on the corresponding serum samples. Bacterial cultures were also performed on the pus samples for the diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess. The real-time PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in 23 of 30 (76.7%) pus samples, when compared with 14 of 30 (46.7%) serum samples in which anti-Entamoeba antibodies were detected by indirect hemagglutination assay and 4 of 30 (13.3%) pus samples that showed bacterial infection by culture. The use of real-time PCR is a promising detection method for diagnosis and epidemiology assessment of amoebic liver abscess.
  2. Noordin R, Wahyuni S, Mangali A, Huat LB, Yazdanbakhsh M, Sartono E
    Filaria J, 2004 Aug 12;3(1):8.
    PMID: 15307892
    BACKGROUND: Brugia malayi is endemic in several Asian countries with the highest prevalence in Indonesia. Determination of prevalence of lymphatic filariasis by serology has been performed by various investigators using different kinds of antigen (either soluble worm antigen preparations or recombinant antigens). This investigation compared the data obtained from IgG4 assays using two different kinds of antigen in a study on prevalence of antibodies to B. malayi. METHODS: Serum samples from a transmigrant population and life long residents previously tested with IgG4 assay using soluble worm antigen (SWA-ELISA), were retested with an IgG4 assay that employs BmR1 recombinant antigen (BmR1 dipstick [Brugia Rapid trade mark ]). The results obtained with the two antigens were compared, using Pearson chi-square and McNemar test. RESULTS: There were similarities and differences in the results obtained using the two kinds of antigen (SWA and BmR1). Similarities included the observation that assays using both antigens demonstrated an increasing prevalence of IgG4 antibodies in the transmigrant population with increasing exposure to the infection, and by six years living in the area, antibody prevalence was similar to that of life-long residents. With regards to differences, of significance is the demonstration of similar antibody prevalence in adults and children by BmR1 dipstick whereas by SWA-ELISA the antibody prevalence in adults was higher than in children. CONCLUSIONS: Results and conclusions made from investigations of prevalence of anti-filarial IgG4 antibody in a population would be affected by the assay employed in the study.
  3. Saidin S, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Razak KA, Huat LB, Othman N, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2014 Apr 04;14:182.
    PMID: 24708664 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-182
    BACKGROUND: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common clinical manifestation of extraintestinal amoebiasis especially in developing countries, causing up to 100 000 fatal cases annually. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to prevent the disease complications, however its diagnosis still poses many challenges due to the limitations of the available detection tools. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), an excretory-secretory protein of E. histolytica, has been reported as a potential diagnostic marker for ALA, hence it may be exploited in the development of a new test for ALA.

    METHODS: Recombinant PPDK (rPPDK) was expressed, purified and evaluated by Western blot. In parallel, recombinant galactose-and-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc lectin) was produced and tested similarly. The protein identity was confirmed by analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF. A lateral flow dipstick (LFD) test using rPPDK was subsequently developed (rPPDK-LFD) and evaluated for serodiagnosis of ALA.

    RESULTS: rPPDK was expressed as soluble protein after 4 hours of induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 30°C. Purification using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin yielded 1.5 mg of rPPDK from 1 L of culture with estimated molecular mass of 98 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Western blots using sera from patients with ALA, healthy individuals and other diseases probed with anti-human IgG4-HRP showed the highest sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (100%); as compared to blots using IgG and IgG1 as secondary antibodies. Moreover, rPPDK showed better specificity when compared to rGal/GalNAc lectin. In the development of the LFD test, the optimum amount of rPPDK was 0.625 μg per dipstick and the optimum working concentration of colloidal gold conjugated anti-human IgG4 was optical density (OD) 5 (1.7 μg of anti-human IgG4). Evaluation of rPPDK-LFD using ALA patients and controls serum samples showed 87% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity.

    CONCLUSION: The developed rPPDK-LFD showed good potential for rapid diagnosis of ALA, and merit further multicentre validation using larger number of serum samples.

  4. Huat LB, Mitra AK, Jamil NI, Dam PC, Mohamed HJ, Muda WA
    J Glob Infect Dis, 2012 Jan;4(1):10-4.
    PMID: 22529621 DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.93753
    Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country.
  5. Ning TZ, Kin WW, Mustafa S, Ahmed A, Noordin R, Cheong TG, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Jan;2(1):61-5.
    PMID: 23569836 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60191-3
    To compare the efficacy of three different tissue stains, namely haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for detection of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) trophozoites in abscessed liver tissues of hamster.
  6. Ning TZ, Kin WW, Noordin R, Cun ST, Chong FP, Mohamed Z, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:144.
    PMID: 23514636 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-144
    Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most frequent clinical presentation of extra-intestinal amoebiasis. The diagnosis of ALA is typically based on the developing clinical symptoms, characteristic changes on radiological imaging and serology. Numerous serological tests have been introduced for the diagnosis of ALA, either detecting circulating amoebic antigens or antibodies. However those tests show some pitfalls in their efficacy and/or the preparation of the tests are costly and tedious. The commercial IHA kit that used crude antigen was reported to be useful in diagnosis of ALA, however high antibody background in endemic areas may cause problems in its interpretation. Thus, discovery of well-defined antigen(s) is urgently needed to improve the weaknesses of current serodiagnostic tests.
  7. Huat LB, Garcia AO, Ning TZ, Kin WW, Noordin R, Azham SS, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2014 Jun;4(6):446-50.
    PMID: 25182945 DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1169
    To characterize the Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) antigen(s) recognized by moribound amoebic liver abscess hamsters.
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