A 47 year old man with a long history of chronic loud snoring and daytime sleepiness presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure and right ventricular failure. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) leading to the 'obesity-hypoventilation syndrome', was supported by the findings of an overnight cardio-respiratory monitoring during sleep. His symptoms and arterial blood gases improved following treatment with nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).
The gold standard for the diagnosis and evaluation of sleep apnoea is overnight polysomnography. However, full polysomnography is an expensive and labour intensive procedure which requires the patient to sleep overnight in a hospital sleep laboratory. This paper describes the use of a commercial ambulatory microprocessor based system (Edentrace II) for the evaluation of fifteen patients aged 24 to 68 years with clinical features suggestive of sleep apnoea syndrome. With this portable recording system, sleep studies can be carried out unattended in a hospital ward and computer-assisted scoring of respiratory events can be performed.
Study site: Chest clinic, wards, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A 36-year-old man presented with haemoptysis and his admission chest radiograph showed a large thin walled cystic lesion with an air-fluid level in the left lower lobe. The pathological diagnosis of the lesion, which was removed by a left lower lobe resection, was an intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst.
Fourteen cases of sarcoidosis consisting of 7 male and 7 female patients with a mean age of 42.4 years were seen at the University Hospital from 1972 to 1990. There were 10 Indians, 2 Malays, and 2 Chinese. Twelve patients had thoracic involvement. The other common disease manifestations included weight loss, arthralgia, hepatomegaly, erythema nodosum, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and hypercalcaemia. At initial presentation, the disease was in radiographic stage I, II, and III in 8, 3 and one patient respectively. The Kveim test was positive in 7 out of 9 patients. Eight patients required steroid therapy.
At the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, nine patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were treated for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) between January 1987 and December 1988. When they developed PCP all the patients' SLE disease course was active and eight of them were on prednisolone. Four of these eight patients were also receiving cyclophosphamide. Patients who were on more intensive immunosuppressive therapy were found to develop more severe PCP. All the patients except one were treated with high-dose cotrimoxazole. Four patients responded to antipneumocystis treatment and survived, while PCP was responsible for the death of the five non-survivors.
A young male who developed ipsilateral pulmonary oedema on two occasions as a complication of treatment of pneumothoraces involving the left lung is reported. The importance of large pneumothoraces, the rapidity of decompression and the application of suction to the pleural space as factors predisposing to the development of re-expansion pulmonary oedema is well demonstrated by this case. The re-expansion pulmonary oedema was more severe on the second occasion when the lung had collapsed for a longer duration compared to the first pneumothorax which was of more recent onset.
A 29 year old Chinese female who presented with spontaneous purpura, was found to have gross hepatomegaly and thrombocytopenia. The thrombocytopenia responded to steroid therapy but relapsed when the dose of steroid was tapered down. Subsequent investigations revealed that the hepatomegaly was due to a large haemangioma of her liver. For symptomatic hepatic haemangioma, surgical excision is the treatment of choice; this was refused by the patient.
Melioidosis is caused by the gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is endemic in tropical Australia and in Southeast Asian countries. The overall mortality from this infection remains extremely high despite recent advancement in its treatment. This review discuss about clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of melioidosis.