Displaying all 5 publications

  1. Mokhtar NM, Ramzi NH, Yin-Ling W, Rose IM, Hatta Mohd Dali AZ, Jamal R
    Cancer Invest, 2012 Feb;30(2):156-64.
    PMID: 22122087 DOI: 10.3109/07357907.2011.633290
    This research determined genes contributing to the pathogenesis of endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC). Eight pairs of microdissected EEC samples matched with normal glandular epithelium were analyzed using microarray. Unsupervised analysis identified 162 transcripts (58 up- and 104 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed (p < .01, fold change ≥ 1.5) between both groups. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the genes of interest: SLC7A5, SATB1, H19, and ZAK (p < .05). Pathway analysis revealed genes involved in acid amino transport, translation, and chromatin remodeling (p < .05). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by microarray enabled precise assessment of homogeneous cell population and identified putative genes for endometrial carcinogenesis.
  2. Ling W, Liew G, Li Y, Hao Y, Pan H, Wang H, et al.
    Adv Mater, 2018 Jun;30(23):e1800917.
    PMID: 29633379 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201800917
    The combination of novel materials with flexible electronic technology may yield new concepts of flexible electronic devices that effectively detect various biological chemicals to facilitate understanding of biological processes and conduct health monitoring. This paper demonstrates single- or multichannel implantable flexible sensors that are surface modified with conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as copper-MOF and cobalt-MOF with large surface area, high porosity, and tunable catalysis capability. The sensors can monitor important nutriments such as ascorbicacid, glycine, l-tryptophan (l-Trp), and glucose with detection resolutions of 14.97, 0.71, 4.14, and 54.60 × 10-6 m, respectively. In addition, they offer sensing capability even under extreme deformation and complex surrounding environment with continuous monitoring capability for 20 d due to minimized use of biological active chemicals. Experiments using live cells and animals indicate that the MOF-modified sensors are biologically safe to cells, and can detect l-Trp in blood and interstitial fluid. This work represents the first effort in integrating MOFs with flexible sensors to achieve highly specific and sensitive implantable electrochemical detection and may inspire appearance of more flexible electronic devices with enhanced capability in sensing, energy storage, and catalysis using various properties of MOFs.
  3. Ling WY, Loo CH, Nurul Shafaril Niza MA, Tan JL, Norazlima MA, Tan WC
    Med J Malaysia, 2023 May;78(3):263-269.
    PMID: 37271834
    INTRODUCTION: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common inflammatory skin disease affecting adolescents and young adults. It affects one's self-esteem and social relationship. In addition, poor adherence to treatment can cause poor treatment response and disease recurrence. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of medical education and counselling on treatment adherence and disease severity.

    METHODS: This is a non-randomised interventional study with age- and treatment- matched control conducted in a tertiary dermatology clinic from July 2021 to June 2022. Patients in the intervention group received a 10 min video presentation on acne, followed by treatment counselling. The adherence rate was determined objectively (pill counting and tube weighing) and subjectively (ECOB questionnaire). The disease severity was assessed using the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS) and Global Acne Grading System (GAGS).

    RESULTS: A total of 100 patients completed the 12-week study. With intervention, patients have better adherence to topical medication (5% benzoyl peroxide gel: 71% vs 57.9%, p= 0.031; 0.05% tretinoin cream: 58.7% vs 45.4%, p= 0.044) at week 12. However, the intervention program did not improve adherence to oral medication. Overall, with intervention, a significantly higher percentage of improvement in disease severity was noted (47.3% vs. 39.1%, p=0.044). Nonadherence to treatment was attributed mostly to forgetfulness in 54% of the patients, followed by a busy lifestyle (41%) and little knowledge of acne (26%).

    CONCLUSION: Patients have significantly better adherence to topical medication with education and counselling. Better adherence to treatment leads to more remarkable disease improvement.

  4. Aimanan K, Mohd Nor MR, Ling W, Che Ghazali K, Ahmad Hamidi AJ, Hayati F, et al.
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Nov;16(11):3457-3460.
    PMID: 34527123 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.08.031
    Trocar site incisional hernia (TSIH) is an unpleasant complication of laparoscopic surgery. A 70-year-old male with low rectal carcinoma underwent a laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection after completion of neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The postoperative recovery was smooth; however, he developed abdominal distension and pain over the previous drain site after removal on day 3. In view of diagnostic ambiguity, an imaging tool was requested as an adjunct to further management. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed small bowel obstruction secondary to herniated ileal loops passing through the right iliac fossa anterior abdominal wall defect at the previous drainage site. An exploration was made and the rectus defect was closed using a non-absorbable suture.
  5. Yarmolinsky J, Relton CL, Lophatananon A, Muir K, Menon U, Gentry-Maharaj A, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2019 Aug;16(8):e1002893.
    PMID: 31390370 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002893
    BACKGROUND: Various risk factors have been associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. However, the causal nature of the risk factors reported, and thus their suitability as effective intervention targets, is unclear given the susceptibility of conventional observational designs to residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants as proxies for risk factors to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We used MR to evaluate the association of 12 previously reported risk factors (reproductive, anthropometric, clinical, lifestyle, and molecular factors) with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes, and low malignant potential tumours.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic instruments to proxy 12 risk factors were constructed by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were robustly (P < 5 × 10-8) and independently associated with each respective risk factor in previously reported genome-wide association studies. These risk factors included genetic liability to 3 factors (endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes) scaled to reflect a 50% higher odds liability to disease. We obtained summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with risk of overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (22,406 cases; 40,941 controls) and low malignant potential tumours (3,103 cases; 40,941 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The OCAC dataset comprises 63 genotyping project/case-control sets with participants of European ancestry recruited from 14 countries (US, Australia, Belarus, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Canada, Poland, UK, Spain, Netherlands, and Sweden). SNPs were combined into multi-allelic inverse-variance-weighted fixed or random effects models to generate effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three complementary sensitivity analyses were performed to examine violations of MR assumptions: MR-Egger regression and weighted median and mode estimators. A Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold was used to establish strong evidence (P < 0.0042) and suggestive evidence (0.0042 < P < 0.05) for associations. In MR analyses, there was strong or suggestive evidence that 2 of the 12 risk factors were associated with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 8 of the 12 were associated with 1 or more invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes. There was strong evidence that genetic liability to endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR] per 50% higher odds liability: 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P = 6.94 × 10-7) and suggestive evidence that lifetime smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (OR per unit increase in smoking score: 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.78; P = 0.02). In analyses examining histotypes and low malignant potential tumours, the strongest associations found were between height and clear cell carcinoma (OR per SD increase: 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.61; P = 0.0003); age at natural menopause and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per year later onset: 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16; P = 0.007); and genetic liability to polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per 50% higher odds liability: 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96; P = 0.002). There was little evidence for an association of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes, parity, or circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and sex hormone binding globulin with ovarian cancer or its subtypes. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of risk factors in relation to some less common ovarian cancer histotypes (low grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas), the inability to directly examine the association of some ovarian cancer risk factors that did not have robust genetic variants available to serve as proxies (e.g., oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy), and the assumption of linear relationships between risk factors and ovarian cancer risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive examination of possible aetiological drivers of ovarian carcinogenesis using germline genetic variants to proxy risk factors supports a role for few of these factors in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer overall and suggests distinct aetiologies across histotypes. The identification of novel risk factors remains an important priority for the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer.

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