Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Looi LM, Loh KC
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Jun;27(1):23-7.
    PMID: 16676689
    Although microwave irradiation has been used in the histopathology laboratory for several years, there has been minimal published experimental data on its effects on the technical and staining quality of histological sections. Furthermore, it has not been clear whether the advantages gained in reduction of fixation and staining duration has been at the expense of increasing architectural distortion to the tissues. We report here our experience with computerised morphometric analysis to investigate glomerular artifacts caused by microwave-stimulated fixation of renal tissues. 39 rat and 33 human autopsy kidney samples were subjected to (1) fixation in neutral buffered formaldehyde (control), (2) microwave-stimulated fixation followed by neutral buffered formaldehyde, and (3) neutral buffered formaldehyde followed by microwave irradiation. In addition, the effect of post-fixation in 70% ethanol was also investigated. Microwave irradiation was delivered through a dedicated laboratory microwave oven at 80% power and at 55 degrees C for 3 minutes. The different fixation methods were compared with regards to shrinkage (distortion) to glomerular structures (glomeruli and Bowman's spaces) on H and E sections, as determined by morphometric image analysis using a temporary assembled-system consisting of a trinocular microscope, a digital video camera and personal computer. A FlashPoint VGA 3.3 film-grabber card was used to capture images for morphometric analysis by using a Scion Image program. Morphometric analysis of glomerular structures showed that microwaves caused more shrinkage to the area bounded by the Bowman's capsule than the glomerulus proper, but post-fixation with ethanol reduced this shrinkage. These findings have implications on the logistics of tissue preparation of renal biopsies in clinical practice.
  2. Loh KC, Chan LC, Phang LF
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 01;75(1):18-23.
    PMID: 32008014
    INTRODUCTION: People often judge others and make decisions based on the physical appearance of an individual. This study assesses the perception and psychosocial judgment on patients with acne vulgaris compared to those with clear skin.

    METHODS: This survey was conducted in Penang from October 2016 to June 2017. Respondents were those who were ≥18 years. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which consists of three randomly selected facial pictures, with at least one acne skin and one clear skin picture.

    RESULTS: A total of 435 respondents were recruited. Two third of the respondents (76%) suffered or had suffered from acne. The skin was the first thing noticed by 76.1% respondents when viewing pictures with acne compared with 24.8% with clear skin (p <0.05). People with acne were perceived as being unattractive, sad, lonely, distant, unhealthy, disheveled and shy as compared to people with clear skin (p<0.05). People with clear skin were perceived to be healthier, confident, happy, attractive, successful and intelligent (p<0.05). Respondents were more willing to engage socially with people with clear skin rather than those with acne skin. A significantly higher proportion of respondents were likely to hire or vote for those with clear skin as compared to acne skin. People with acne were also perceived to have a lower educational level and poorer leadership quality.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this survey showed that there were significantly negative perception and psychological judgement toward individuals with acne vulgaris. These negative impacts may affect social life of the acne sufferers, their prospect of employment and career opportunities.

  3. Tan JYL, Loh KC, Yeo GSH, Chee YC
    BJOG, 2002 Jun;109(6):683-8.
    PMID: 12118648
    OBJECTIVE: To characterise the clinical, biochemical and thyroid antibody profile in women with transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum.
    DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
    SETTING: Hospital inpatient gynaecological ward.
    POPULATION: Women admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and found to have hyperthyroidism.
    METHODS: Fifty-three women were admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and were found to have hyperthyroidism. Each woman was examined for clinical signs of thyroid disease and underwent investigations including urea, creatinine, electrolytes, liver function test, thyroid antibody profile and serial thyroid function test until normalisation.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gestation at which thyroid function normalised, clinical and thyroid antibody profile and pregnancy outcome (birthweight, gestation at delivery and Apgar score at 5 minutes).
    RESULTS: Full data were available for 44 women. Free T4 levels normalised by 15 weeks of gestation in the 39 women with transient hyperthyroidism while TSH remained suppressed until 19 weeks of gestation. None of these women were clinically hyperthyroid. Thyroid antibodies were not found in most of them. Median birthweight in the infants of mothers who experienced weight loss of > 5% of their pre-pregnancy weight was lower compared with those of women who did not (P = 0.093). Five women were diagnosed with Graves' disease based on clinical features and thyroid antibody profile.
    CONCLUSIONS: In transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum, thyroid function normalises by the middle of the second trimester without anti-thyroid treatment. Clinically overt hyperthyroidism and thyroid antibodies are usually absent. Apart from a non-significant trend towards lower birthweights in the infants of mothers who experienced significant weight loss, pregnancy outcome was generally good. Routine assessment of thyroid function is unnecessary for women with hyperemesis gravidarum in the absence of any clinical features of hyperthyroidism.
  4. Loh KC, Koay ES, Khaw MC, Emmanuel SC, Young WF
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000 Aug;85(8):2854-9.
    PMID: 10946893
    Recent studies using the ratio of plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to PRA as the screening test for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive populations suggested that the prevalence may be as high as 5-15%, with well over half of the subjects having normal serum potassium concentrations. Despite an increasing clinical awareness of this entity, many clinicians are reluctant to consider routine screening for primary aldosteronism in essential hypertensive patients because there are few community-based prevalence studies of primary aldosteronism in different populations. Furthermore, genetic and environmental differences may affect the prevalence and presentation of primary aldosteronism in distinct populations. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in the predominantly Chinese population in Singapore. Three hundred and fifty unselected adult hypertensive patients attending two primary care clinics had random ambulatory measurements for PAC (nanograms per dL) and PRA (nanograms per mL/h). Serum urea, creatinine, and electrolyte measurements were obtained simultaneously. Subjects with renal insufficiency (serum creatinine, >140 micromol/L) and those treated with glucocorticoids or spironolactone were excluded. Screening was considered positive if the PAC: PRA ratio was more than 20 and the PAC was more than 15 ng/dL (>416 pmol/L). Primary aldosteronism was confirmed with the determination of PAC after 2 L saline administered iv over 4 h. Adrenal computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed in biochemically confirmed cases of primary aldosteronism. Further localization with adrenal vein sampling was carried out in selected patients with equivocal findings on adrenal CT scan. Sixty-three (18%) of the 350 hypertensive patients (215 women and 135 men; age range, 23-75 yr) were screened positive for primary aldosteronism. Only 13 of these 63 subjects (21%) were hypokalemic (serum potassium, <3.5 mmol/L). Confirmatory studies were carried out in 56 (89%) of the subjects with a positive PAC:PRA ratio. Using a PAC above 10 ng/dL (>277 pmol/L) after saline infusion as the diagnostic cut-off, 16 of the 56 patients had biochemically confirmed primary aldosteronism. Hypokalemia was found in 6 of the 16 patients (37.5%) with primary aldosteronism. Subtype evaluation with adrenal CT scan and adrenal vein sampling indicated that half of the patients with primary aldosteronism may have had potentially curable unilateral adrenal adenoma. Our data suggest that primary aldosteronism occurs in at least 5% of the adult Asian hypertensive population, and approximately half of these individuals may have potentially curable, unilateral, aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Our findings also confirm the poor predictive value of hypokalemia in both the diagnosis and the exclusion of primary aldosteronism.
  5. Rohana AG, Loh KC, Tin SK, Soh CH, Nazaimoon WM, Fong KY, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):133-7.
    PMID: 22106694
    HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 gene polymorphism were analyzed to study type 1 DM susceptibility in Malay patients from Southeast Asia (Malaysia and Singapore). Patients showed significant increases in the occurrence of DQA1*0501 (50.7% vs. 20.4%; RR = 3.97; Pc < 0.01), DQB1*0201 (48% vs. 19.1%; RR = 3.86; Pc < 0.05), and DRB1*0301 (38.7 vs. 6.8%; RR = 8.36; 95% Pc < 0.05). Conversely, significant decreases were noted in the occurrence of DQA1*0601 (14.7% vs. 35.2%; RR = 0.33; Pc = 0.008) and DQB1*0601 (4% vs. 23.5%; RR = 0.16; Pc < 0.05) in type 1 DM patients. Using a logistic regression model, we derived a risk prediction model for type 1 DM in our indigenous Malay population based on the identified HLA genotypes. The RR for type 1 DM increases by a factor of 5.68 for every unit increase in the number of DRB1*0301 allele (P < 0.001), and decreases by a factor of 0.18 per unit increase in the number of DQB1*0601 allele (P < 0.001). After adjusting for these two HLA genotypes, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0601 were not statistically significant as risk predictors. The lower incidence of type 1 DM in the Malay population may be contributed by the genotypic combinations of DR and DQ genes as well as the linkage disequilibria between susceptible and protective alleles.
  6. Murugaiah H, Teh CL, Loh KC, Mohamad Yahya AR, Md Noh NA, Abu Bakar NHH, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Oct 24;26(21).
    PMID: 34770823 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26216414
    Here, we report the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and determination of their antibacterial and anticancer properties. We also explore the efficacy of bioAgNPs incorporated in cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and alginate (Alg) for the formation of an antibacterial hydrogel film. Streptomyces sp. PBD-311B was used for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The synthesized bioAgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Then, the bioAgNPs' antibacterial and anticancer properties were determined using TEMA and cytotoxicity analysis. To form the antibacterial hydrogel film, bioAgNPs were mixed with a CNC and Alg solution and further characterized using FTIR analysis and a disc diffusion test. The average size of the synthesized bioAgNPs is around 69 ± 2 nm with a spherical shape. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of silver nanocrystals. FTIR analysis showed the presence of protein capping at the bioAgNP surface and could be attributed to the extracellular protein binding to bioAgNPs. The MIC value of bioAgNPs against P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 and MRSA was 6.25 mg/mL and 3.13 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the bioAgNPs displayed cytotoxicity effects against cancer cells (DBTRG-0.5MG and MCF-7) and showed minimal effects against normal cells (SVG-p12 and MCF-10A), conferring selective toxicity. Interestingly, the bioAgNPs still exhibited inhibition activity when incorporated into CNC/Alg, which implies that the hydrogel film has antibacterial properties. It was also found that bioAgNP-CNC/Alg displayed a minimal or slow release of bioAgNPs owing to the intermolecular interaction and the hydrogel's properties. Overall, bioAgNP-CNC/Alg is a promising antibacterial hydrogel film that showed inhibition against the pathogenic bacteria P. aeruginosa and MRSA and its application can be further evaluated for the inhibition of cancer cells. It showed benefits for surgical resection of a tumor to avoid post-operative wound infection and tumor recurrence at the surgical site.
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