This paper demonstrates Pseudomonas cepacia lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl palmitate under irradiation of light with wavelengths of 250-750 nm. The reaction follows Michaelis-Menten Kinetics and the light irradiation increases the overall rate of hydrolysis. Using Lineweaver-Burk plot K M and V max values for the reaction in presence of light are found to be 39.07 and 66.67 mM/min/g, respectively; while for the same reaction under dark condition, the values are 7.08 and 10.21 mM/min/g. The linear form of enzyme dependent rate of reaction confirms that no mass-transfer limitations are present and the reaction is a kinetically controlled enzymatic reaction.
Damage assessment is a key element in structural health monitoring of various industrial applications to understand well and predict the response of the material. The big uncertainty in carbon fiber composite materials response is because of variability in the initiation and propagation of damage. Developing advanced tools to design with composite materials, methods for characterizing several damage modes during operation are required. While there is a significant amount of work on the analysis of acoustic emission (AE) from different composite materials and many loading cases, this research focuses on applying an unsupervised clustering method for separating AE data into several groups with distinct evolution. In this paper, we develop an adaptive sampling and unsupervised bivariate data clustering techniques to characterize the several damage initiations of a composite structure in different lay-ups. An adaptive sampling technique pre-processes the AE features and eliminates redundant AE data samples. The reduction of unnecessary AE data depends on the requirements of the proposed bivariate data clustering technique. The bivariate data clustering technique groups the AE data (dependent variable) with respect to the mechanical data (independent variable) to assess the damage of the composite structure. Tensile experiments on carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP) in different orientations are carried out to collect mechanical and AE data and demonstrate the damage modes. Based on the mechanical stress-strain data, the results show the dominant damage regions in different lay-ups of specimens and the definition of the different states of damage. In addition, the states of the damage are observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Based on the AE data, the results show that the strong linear correlation between AE and mechanical energy, and the classification of various modes of damage in all lay-ups of specimens forming clusters of AE energy with respect to the mechanical energy. Furthermore, the validation of the cluster-based characterization and improvement of the sensitivity of the damage modes classification are observed by the combined knowledge of AE and mechanical energy and time-frequency spectrum analysis.
Corrosion in carbon-steel pipelines leads to failure, which is a major cause of breakdown maintenance in the oil and gas industries. The acoustic emission (AE) signal is a reliable method for corrosion detection and classification in the modern Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. The efficiency of this system in detection and classification mainly depends on the suitable AE features. Therefore, many feature extraction and classification methods have been developed for corrosion detection and severity assessment. However, the extraction of appropriate AE features and classification of various levels of corrosion utilizing these extracted features are still challenging issues. To overcome these issues, this article proposes a hybrid machine learning approach that combines Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) integrated with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for multiresolution feature extraction and Linear Support Vector Classifier (L-SVC) for predicting corrosion severity levels. A Laboratory-based Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) test was performed on carbon-steel samples for AE data acquisition over a different time span. AE signals were collected at a high sampling rate with a sound well AE sensor using AEWin software. Simulation results show a linear relationship between the proposed approach-based extracted AE features and the corrosion process. For multi-class problems, three corrosion severity stages have been made based on the corrosion rate over time and AE activity. The ANOVA test results indicate the significance within and between the feature-groups where F-values (F-value>1) rejects the null hypothesis and P-values (P-value<0.05) are less than the significance level. The utilized L-SVC classifier achieves higher prediction accuracy of 99.0% than the accuracy of other benchmarked classifiers. Findings of our proposed machine learning approach confirm that it can be effectively utilized for corrosion detection and severity assessment in SHM applications.