The detection and analysis of microsatellites is very important for the mapping of genetic diseases because they are commonly used as genetic markers. Microsatellite marker D19S884 has been associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common reproductive endocrine disease of women in their childbearing years. It is responsible for an estimated 70% of cases of anovulatory infertility. In this work, we detected microsatellites in DNA extracted from the blood of PCOS patients.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50 mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1 mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100 μ g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10 μ M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.
Dioscorea hispida (D.hispida) is the most well-known starchy tuber in Malaysia and called 'ubi gadong'. Despite concerns over toxicity effects, the tuber is known to possess therapeutic values due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as saponins. This study was performed to identify the changes in gene expression profiles associated with hepatoxicity in pregnant rat treated with D.hispida using RT² Profiler PCR Array. The identification of steroidal saponins from D.hispida was carried out by UHPLC/MS method. Treatment of D.hispida caused mortality when dosage above 2000 mg/kg b.w. was given to pregnant rats. The PCR array showed that several genes were significantly up and down-regulated upon treatment with D.hispida. Treatment of D.hispida at 2000 mg/kg b.w leads to significant upregulation of several genes such as Btg2, Gsr, L2hgdn, S100a8, Slc17a3, Bhmt, Cd68, Cyp1a2 whereas several genes were downregulated such as Abcb1a, Aldoa, Cdc14b, Icam1, Krt18, Hpn and Maob. The consumption of D.hispida extract when taken at lower dosage of 2000 mg/kg may not be harmful to rats. D.hispida extract given at the highest dosage to pregnant rats caused alterations of several genes categorized in different hepatotoxic group functions such as necrosis, cholestasis and phospholipodisis.