Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Sabtu MY, Lim KK, Ismail H, Mohd Zaki NA, Lim KH
    Med J Malaysia, 2015;70 Suppl 1:70.
    Introduction: The Ministry of Health had initiated a national programme known as “KOSPEN” to study the prevalence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and its risk factors among the population. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness, knowledge and acceptance of KOSPEN programme among
    Community Development Department (KEMAS) personnel in Southern Zone, Malaysia.
    Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between October and mid December 2014. The study used validated self-administered questionnaires to collect data from the 2375 KEMAS staff from the state of Johor, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis.
    Results: The results revealed that only 25.5% of respondents were aware that they were on the KOSPEN committee and 65.7% said that they knew the functions of KEMAS in KOSPEN. 90.8% were aware that their responsibilities included identifying localities for KOSPEN, identifying volunteers (85.7%) and attending KOSPEN training (75.3%). In terms of knowledge, most of them knew the objectives of KOSPEN, such as “KEMAS will add on the value of the programmes and its activities” (84.3%) and “to establish trained health volunteers in the community” (85.9%). They also knew that healthy eating habits (94.7%), active lifestyle (93.4%), body weight management (87.0%), no smoking (86.8%) and health screening (92.2%) were the components of KOSPEN. Majority of the respondents perceived that the components for intervention in the community were good. The highest accepted component was health
    screening (83.5%), follow by healthy eating habits (82.0%), active lifestyle (80.4%), no smoking habit (76.9%) and body weight management (76.1%).
    Conclusion: the awareness, knowledge and acceptance of KOSPEN programme by KEMAS personnel are good. Several measures are currently being carried out to improve and strengthen the implementation of KOSPEN programme such as funding, screening equipment and health education materials.
  2. Palaniveloo L, Ambak R, Othman F, Mohd Zaki NA, Baharudin A, Abdul Aziz NS, et al.
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):7.
    PMID: 34059161 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00238-x
    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure or hypertension is well recognized as an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies had indicated potassium intake has a blood pressure lowering effect. This study aimed to estimate potassium intake via 24-h urinary potassium excretion and to determine the association between potassium intake and blood pressure among adults in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data for 424 respondents in this study were drawn from MyCoSS, a nationwide cross- sectional study conducted among Malaysians who were 18 years and above. Respondents were recruited using stratified cluster sampling, covering urban and rural areas in each state in Malaysia. Data collection was undertaken from October 2017 until March 2018. A single urine sample was collected over 24 h for quantification of potassium excreted. Information on socio-demography and medical history of the respondents were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were measured using validated equipment. BMI was estimated using measured body weight and height. Digital blood pressure monitor (Omron HBP-1300) was used to measure blood pressure. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariable linear regression were used to analyze the data in SPSS Version 21.

    RESULTS: Mean 24-h urinary potassium excretion for the 424 respondents was 37 mmol (95% CI 36, 38). Gender and ethnicity showed statistically significant associations with 24-h urinary potassium excretion. However, potassium excretion was not significantly associated with blood pressure in this study.

    CONCLUSION: Potassium intake is very low among the adults in Malaysia. Therefore, further education and promotional campaigns regarding daily consumption of potassium-rich diet and its benefits to health need to be tailored for the Malaysian adult population.

  3. Othman F, Ambak R, Siew Man C, Mohd Zaki NA, Ahmad MH, Abdul Aziz NS, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:6781597.
    PMID: 31192010 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6781597
    Dietary consumption and other environmental factors are known factors associated with sodium intake. However, little is known about the influence of energy intake on this relationship. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high sodium intake assessed from urine sodium excretion and the influence of energy intake. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016 among Malaysian health staff (MySalt 2015). A total of 1027 participants from 1568 targeted participants aged 18 years and older that were randomly selected were included in this study. Sodium intake was determined by measuring sodium excretion in the 24 hr urine test. Dietary, sociodemography, and anthropometry variables as associated risk factors were assessed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between high sodium intake (≥2000 mg/day urinary sodium) and potential risk factors. The prevalence of high sodium intake in this study was 70.1% (n=733). High sodium intake was associated with male (OR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41, 2.64), Bumiputera Sarawak ethnicity (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09, 0.62), and energy-adjusted sodium intake (mg/d) (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.39). Our results suggested that sex, ethnicity, and energy-adjusted sodium consumption were strong risk factors associated with high sodium intake independent from energy and other potential confounding factors.
  4. Awaluddin SM, Shahein NA, Che Abdul Rahim N, Mohd Zaki NA, Nasaruddin NH, Saminathan TA, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021 Oct 17;18(20).
    PMID: 34682667 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182010922
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anemia and factors associated with anemia among men in Malaysia. The researchers used data from the 2019 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS). The hemoglobin levels of men aged 15 years and above who gave their consent was measured using the HemoCue® Hb 201+ System©. The majority of them (87.2%) were men aged 15-59 years, referred to as the younger age group in this study. The prevalence of anemia among men was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.9, 14.5). The prevalence was higher among older men (30.7%; 95% CI: 26.6, 35.1) than younger men (10.0%; 95% CI: 8.2, 12.2). Anemia among men was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.4) and those with diabetes (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.1) via a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, older men were more affected by anemia than younger men in this study. Anemia among older men in Malaysia is at the level of moderate to severe public health significance. The likelihood of developing anemia is increased among older men with diabetes compared to older men without diabetes. These often-overlooked issues among men need to be detected and treated early in order to prevent complications and improve their quality of life.
  5. Mohd Zaki NA, Appannah G, Mohamad Nor NS, Omar A, Fazliana M, Ambak R, et al.
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):110.
    PMID: 30066638 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0595-z
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian women remained high over the past three decades. Collaboration with existing community at-risk may be feasible for wide-scale prevention of overweight and obesity in the country. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of community-based lifestyle intervention among overweight and obese women on their anthropometric and body composition changes as compared to the usual care group.

    METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in low-cost flats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 255 overweight and obesity individuals aged between 18 to 59 years old were assigned to either the lifestyle intervention group (n = 169) or the usual care group (n = 146) over a period of 6 months. Individuals in the intervention group received 6 individual lifestyle counselling comprised of physical activity, diet counselling and self-monitoring components aimed to achieve at least 5% weight loss while individuals in the usual care group obtained six sessions of health care seminars from health care providers. These individuals were then followed-up for another 6 months without any intervention as part of maintenance period.

    RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 6-month of intervention (β, 95% CI) revealed greater changes in weight among intervention individuals' (- 1.09 kg vs. -0.99; p  0.05). Individuals in the intervention group showed a significant increase for skeletal muscle mass (0.13 kg) than those individuals in the control group (- 0.37 kg), p = 0.033, throughout the study period.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that an overweight and obesity prevention program can be implemented in a community setting, with some reduction of several anthropometric and body composition parameters.

  6. Mohd Sallehuddin S, Mohamad Nor NS, Ambak R, Abdul Aziz NS, Mohd Zaki NA, Omar MA, et al.
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):101.
    PMID: 30066647 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0597-x
    BACKGROUND: Obesity leads to the increase of pain at different parts of the body and it is a potential marker for complications of chronic diseases. This paper aims to assess changes in the body pain among overweight and obese housewives who participated in the My Body is Fit and Fabulous at home (MyBFF@home) study.

    METHODS: Housewives aged 18 to 59 years old from the MyBFF@home study were selected and pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. VAS measured the pain intensity at different parts of the body (score of 0-10). Data were collected at base line, 3 months and 6 months among the housewives in both the control and intervention group. Pain scores and other variables (age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference) were analysed using SPSS version 22.

    RESULTS: A total of 328 housewives completed the VAS questionnaires at baseline, while 185 (56.4%) of housewives completed the VAS at 3 months and 6 months. A decreasing trend of mean pain score in both groups after 6 months was observed. However, the intervention group showed a consistent decreasing trend of pain score mainly for back pain. In the control group, there was a slight increment of score in back pain from baseline towards the 6 months period. Older housewives in both groups (aged 50 years and above) had a higher mean score of leg pain (2.86, SD: 2.82) compared to the other age group. Higher BMI was significantly associated with pain score in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: There were some changes in the level of body pain among the housewives before and after the intervention. Older obese women had a higher pain score compared to younger obese women. Pain was associated with BMI and change in BMI appears to be beneficial in reducing body pain among overweight and obese individuals.

  7. Baharudin A, Ambak R, Othman F, Michael V, Cheong SM, Mohd Zaki NA, et al.
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):6.
    PMID: 34059158 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00235-0
    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure or hypertension has become one of the main health problems, worldwide. A number of studies have proven that an increased intake of salt was related to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Of late, its relationship with high salt intake has received a lot of attention. Studies in Malaysia have shown both rising hypertension over time as well as high salt consumption. Actions to reduce salt intake are essential to reduce hypertension and its disease burden. As such, we carried out a study to determine associations between knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards salt intake and hypertension among the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: Data obtained from the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) was used partially for this study. The survey used a cross-sectional two-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above living in non-institutional living quarters (LQ). Face-to-face interviews were done by trained research assistants (RA) to obtain information on sociodemography, medical report, as well as knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the respondents towards salt intake and blood pressure.

    RESULTS: Majority of the respondents have been diagnosed with hypertension (61.4%) as well as knowledge of the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure (58.8%). More than half of the respondents (53.3%) said they controlled their salt intake on a regular basis. Those who knew that a high salt diet could contribute to a serious health problem (OR=0.23) as well as those who controlled their salt intake (OR=0.44) were significantly less likely to have hypertension.

    CONCLUSION: Awareness of the effects of sodium on human health, as well as the behaviour of controlling salt intake, is essential towards lowering the prevalence of hypertension among Malaysians.

  8. Lim HK, Teh HC, Lim LH, Lau JK, Kee CC, Ghazali SM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(11):4563-70.
    PMID: 26107204
    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a learnt behavior during adolescence and understanding the factor/s associated with smoking will assist in identifying suitable measures in combating the rising prevalence of smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to identify the factor/s associated with smoking among form four students in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of students in 2008 and data were collected using a self-administered validated questionnaire. This study revealed that the overall smoking prevalence was 19.0% with a significantly higher proportion of male smokers (35.8%) as compared to females (3.15%). Adolescents who were male (aOR 6.6, 95%CI 2.61-16.4), those who had peer/s who smoked (aOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.31-12.4), and those who studied in rural areas and Felda Settlements ( aOR 4.59, 95 CI 1.11-18.0; aOR 9.42, 95%CI 3.91-29.1) were more likely to smoke in the past one week. On the other hand, adolescents with better knowledge on the hazards of smoking and negative attitudes towards smoking were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.72; aOR 0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.99). Future promotional and interventional programmes on smoking should be considered and the above identified risk factors integrated to reduce smoking prevalence among students of school-going ages in Kota Tinggi. Johor.
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