Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Moo EK, Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(8):1431-6.
    PMID: 21915496
    INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture.

    METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days.

    RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

  2. Moo EK, Amrein M, Epstein M, Duvall M, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Biophys. J., 2013 Oct 1;105(7):1590-600.
    PMID: 24094400 DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.08.035
    Impact loading of articular cartilage causes extensive chondrocyte death. Cell membranes have a limited elastic range of 3-4% strain but are protected from direct stretch during physiological loading by their membrane reservoir, an intricate pattern of membrane folds. Using a finite-element model, we suggested previously that access to the membrane reservoir is strain-rate-dependent and that during impact loading, the accessible membrane reservoir is drastically decreased, so that strains applied to chondrocytes are directly transferred to cell membranes, which fail when strains exceed 3-4%. However, experimental support for this proposal is lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure the accessible membrane reservoir size for different membrane strain rates using membrane tethering techniques with atomic force microscopy. We conducted atomic force spectroscopy on isolated chondrocytes (n = 87). A micron-sized cantilever was used to extract membrane tethers from cell surfaces at constant pulling rates. Membrane tethers could be identified as force plateaus in the resulting force-displacement curves. Six pulling rates were tested (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μm/s). The size of the membrane reservoir, represented by the membrane tether surface areas, decreased exponentially with increasing pulling rates. The current results support our theoretical findings that chondrocytes exposed to impact loading die because of membrane ruptures caused by high tensile membrane strain rates.
  3. Moo EK, Abusara Z, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Herzog W
    J Biomech, 2013 Aug 9;46(12):2024-31.
    PMID: 23849134 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.06.007
    Morphological studies of live connective tissue cells are imperative to helping understand cellular responses to mechanical stimuli. However, photobleaching is a constant problem to accurate and reliable live cell fluorescent imaging, and various image thresholding methods have been adopted to account for photobleaching effects. Previous studies showed that dual photon excitation (DPE) techniques are superior over conventional one photon excitation (OPE) confocal techniques in minimizing photobleaching. In this study, we investigated the effects of photobleaching resulting from OPE and DPE on morphology of in situ articular cartilage chondrocytes across repeat laser exposures. Additionally, we compared the effectiveness of three commonly-used image thresholding methods in accounting for photobleaching effects, with and without tissue loading through compression. In general, photobleaching leads to an apparent volume reduction for subsequent image scans. Performing seven consecutive scans of chondrocytes in unloaded cartilage, we found that the apparent cell volume loss caused by DPE microscopy is much smaller than that observed using OPE microscopy. Applying scan-specific image thresholds did not prevent the photobleaching-induced volume loss, and volume reductions were non-uniform over the seven repeat scans. During cartilage loading through compression, cell fluorescence increased and, depending on the thresholding method used, led to different volume changes. Therefore, different conclusions on cell volume changes may be drawn during tissue compression, depending on the image thresholding methods used. In conclusion, our findings confirm that photobleaching directly affects cell morphology measurements, and that DPE causes less photobleaching artifacts than OPE for uncompressed cells. When cells are compressed during tissue loading, a complicated interplay between photobleaching effects and compression-induced fluorescence increase may lead to interpretations in cell responses to mechanical stimuli that depend on the microscopic approach and the thresholding methods used and may result in contradictory interpretations.
  4. Moo EK, Herzog W, Han SK, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Federico S
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2012 Sep;11(7):983-93.
    PMID: 22234779 DOI: 10.1007/s10237-011-0367-2
    Experimental findings indicate that in-situ chondrocytes die readily following impact loading, but remain essentially unaffected at low (non-impact) strain rates. This study was aimed at identifying possible causes for cell death in impact loading by quantifying chondrocyte mechanics when cartilage was subjected to a 5% nominal tissue strain at different strain rates. Multi-scale modelling techniques were used to simulate cartilage tissue and the corresponding chondrocytes residing in the tissue. Chondrocytes were modelled by accounting for the cell membrane, pericellular matrix and pericellular capsule. The results suggest that cell deformations, cell fluid pressures and fluid flow velocity through cells are highest at the highest (impact) strain rate, but they do not reach damaging levels. Tangential strain rates of the cell membrane were highest at the highest strain rate and were observed primarily in superficial tissue cells. Since cell death following impact loading occurs primarily in superficial zone cells, we speculate that cell death in impact loading is caused by the high tangential strain rates in the membrane of superficial zone cells causing membrane rupture and loss of cell content and integrity.
  5. Moo EK, Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Abas WA, Spence WD, Solomonidis SE
    Acta Bioeng Biomech, 2009;11(4):37-43.
    PMID: 20405814
    Conventionally, patellar tendon-bearing (PTB) sockets, which need high dexterity of prosthetist, are widely used. Lack of chartered and experienced prosthetist has often led to painful experience of wearing prosthesis and this will in turn deter the patients to wear the prosthesis, which will further aggravate stump shrinkage. Thus, the hydrostatic socket which demands relatively lower level of fabricating skill is proposed to replace the PTB socket in order to produce the equivalent, if not better, quality of support to the amputee patients. Both sockets' pressure profiles are studied and compared using finite element analysis (FEA) software. Three-dimensional models of both sockets were developed using MIMICS software. The analysis results showed that hydrostatic socket did exhibit more uniform pressure profiles than that of PTB socket. PTB socket showed pressure concentration near the proximal brim of the socket and also at the distal fibula. It was also found that the pressure magnitude in hydrostatic socket is relatively lower than that of PTB socket.
  6. Moo EK, Al-Saffar Y, Le T, A Seerattan R, Pingguan-Murphy B, K Korhonen R, et al.
    J Orthop Res, 2021 Dec 16.
    PMID: 34914129 DOI: 10.1002/jor.25243
    Degeneration of articular cartilage is often triggered by a small tissue crack. As cartilage structure and composition change with age, the mechanics of cracked cartilage may depend on the tissue age, but this relationship is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cartilage mechanics and crack deformation in immature and mature cartilage exposed to a full-thickness tissue crack using indentation testing and histology, respectively. When a cut was introduced, tissue cracks opened wider in the mature cartilage compared to the immature cartilage. However, the opposite occurred upon mechanical indentation over the cracked region. Functionally, the immature-cracked cartilages stress-relaxed faster, experienced increased tissue strain, and had reduced instantaneous stiffness, compared to the mature-cracked cartilages. Taken together, mature cartilage appears to withstand surface cracks and maintains its mechanical properties better than immature cartilage and these superior properties can be explained by the structure of their collagen fibrous network.
  7. Al-Saffar Y, Moo EK, Pingguan-Murphy B, Matyas J, Korhonen RK, Herzog W
    Connect Tissue Res, 2023 Feb 28.
    PMID: 36853960 DOI: 10.1080/03008207.2023.2166500
    Cartilage cracks disrupt tissue mechanics, alter cell mechanobiology, and often trigger tissue degeneration. Yet, some tissue cracks heal spontaneously. A primary factor determining the fate of tissue cracks is the compression-induced mechanics, specifically whether a crack opens or closes when loaded. Crack deformation is thought to be affected by tissue structure, which can be probed by quantitative polarized light microscopy (PLM). It is unclear how the PLM measures are related to deformed crack morphology. Here, we investigated the relationship between PLM-derived cartilage structure and mechanical behavior of tissue cracks by testing if PLM-derived structural measures correlated with crack morphology in mechanically indented cartilages.

    METHODS: Knee joint cartilages harvested from mature and immature animals were used for their distinct collagenous fibrous structure and composition. The cartilages were cut through thickness, indented over the cracked region, and processed histologically. Sample-specific birefringence was quantified as two-dimensional (2D) maps of azimuth and retardance, two measures related to local orientation and degree of alignment of the collagen fibers, respectively. The shape of mechanically indented tissue cracks, measured as depth-dependent crack opening, were compared with azimuth, retardance, or "PLM index," a new parameter derived by combining azimuth and retardance.

    RESULTS: Of the three parameters, only the PLM index consistently correlated with the crack shape in immature and mature tissues.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified the relative roles of azimuth and retardance on the deformation of tissue cracks, with azimuth playing the dominant role. The applicability of the PLM index should be tested in future studies using naturally-occurring tissue cracks.

  8. Moo EK, Han SK, Federico S, Sibole SC, Jinha A, Abu Osman NA, et al.
    J Biomech, 2014 Mar 21;47(5):1004-13.
    PMID: 24480705 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.003
    Cartilage lesions change the microenvironment of cells and may accelerate cartilage degradation through catabolic responses from chondrocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on chondrocytes by comparing the mechanics of cells surrounded by an intact ECM with cells close to a cartilage lesion using experimental and numerical methods. Experimentally, 15% nominal compression was applied to bovine cartilage tissues using a light-transmissible compression system. Target cells in the intact ECM and near lesions were imaged by dual-photon microscopy. Changes in cell morphology (N(cell)=32 for both ECM conditions) were quantified. A two-scale (tissue level and cell level) Finite Element (FE) model was also developed. A 15% nominal compression was applied to a non-linear, biphasic tissue model with the corresponding cell level models studied at different radial locations from the centre of the sample in the transient phase and at steady state. We studied the Green-Lagrange strains in the tissue and cells. Experimental and theoretical results indicated that cells near lesions deform less axially than chondrocytes in the intact ECM at steady state. However, cells near lesions experienced large tensile strains in the principal height direction, which are likely associated with non-uniform tissue radial bulging. Previous experiments showed that tensile strains of high magnitude cause an up-regulation of digestive enzyme gene expressions. Therefore, we propose that cartilage degradation near tissue lesions may be due to the large tensile strains in the principal height direction applied to cells, thus leading to an up-regulation of catabolic factors.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links