Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Nagarajan R, Hariharan M, Satiyan M
    J Med Syst, 2012 Aug;36(4):2225-34.
    PMID: 21465183 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-011-9690-5
    Developing tools to assist physically disabled and immobilized people through facial expression is a challenging area of research and has attracted many researchers recently. In this paper, luminance stickers based facial expression recognition is proposed. Recognition of facial expression is carried out by employing Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as a feature extraction method. Different wavelet families with their different orders (db1 to db20, Coif1 to Coif 5 and Sym2 to Sym8) are utilized to investigate their performance in recognizing facial expression and to evaluate their computational time. Standard deviation is computed for the coefficients of first level of wavelet decomposition for every order of wavelet family. This standard deviation is used to form a set of feature vectors for classification. In this study, conventional validation and cross validation are performed to evaluate the efficiency of the suggested feature vectors. Three different classifiers namely Artificial Neural Network (ANN), k-Nearest Neighborhood (kNN) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are used to classify a set of eight facial expressions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives very promising classification accuracies.
  2. Nagarajan R, Rajmohan N, Mahendran U, Senthamilkumar S
    Environ Monit Assess, 2010 Dec;171(1-4):289-308.
    PMID: 20072811 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-1279-9
    As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Thanjavur city due to lack of surface water resources, groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. In this study, 102 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and bore wells during March 2008 and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, major ions, and nitrate. Results suggest that, in 90% of groundwater samples, sodium and chloride are predominant cation and anion, respectively, and NaCl and CaMgCl are major water types in the study area. The groundwater quality in the study site is impaired by surface contamination sources, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations strongly express the impact of surface contamination sources such as agricultural and domestic activities, on groundwater quality, and 13% of samples have elevated nitrate content (>45 mg/l as NO(3)). PHREEQC code and Gibbs plots were employed to evaluate the contribution of mineral dissolution and suggest that mineral dissolution, especially carbonate minerals, regulates water chemistry. Groundwater suitability for drinking usage was evaluated by the World Health Organization and Indian standards and suggests that 34% of samples are not suitable for drinking. Integrated groundwater suitability map for drinking purposes was created using drinking water standards based on a concept that if the groundwater sample exceeds any one of the standards, it is not suitable for drinking. This map illustrates that wells in zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not fit for drinking purpose. Likewise, irrigational suitability of groundwater in the study region was evaluated, and results suggest that 20% samples are not fit for irrigation. Groundwater suitability map for irrigation was also produced based on salinity and sodium hazards and denotes that wells mostly situated in zones 2 and 3 are not suitable for irrigation. Both integrated suitability maps for drinking and irrigation usage provide overall scenario about the groundwater quality in the study area. Finally, the study concluded that groundwater quality is impaired by man-made activities, and proper management plan is necessary to protect valuable groundwater resources in Thanjavur city.
  3. Prasanna MV, Nagarajan R, Chidambaram S, Elayaraja A
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2012 Sep;89(3):507-11.
    PMID: 22684361 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-012-0698-4
    A baseline study was carried out to assess the metal concentrations and microbial contamination at selected Lake waters in and around Miri City, East Malaysia. Sixteen surface water samples were collected at specific Lakes in the environs of major settlement areas and recreational centers in Miri City. The Physico-chemical parameters [pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)], metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were analysed. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ni have been found to be above the permissible limits of drinking water quality standards. The metals data have also been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index. Higher values of E. coli indicate microbial contamination in the Lake waters.
  4. Prabakaran K, Nagarajan R, Eswaramoorthi S, Anandkumar A, Franco FM
    Chemosphere, 2019 Mar;219:933-953.
    PMID: 30572242 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.158
    The geochemistry and distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements (REE's) was studied in the surface sediments of the Lower Baram River during two seasons: the Monsoon (MON) and Post - monsoon (POM). The major geochemical processes controlling the distribution and mobility of major, trace and REE's in the Lower Baram River surface sediments was revealed through factor analysis. The risk assessment of major and trace element levels was studied at three specific levels; i.e. the enrichment level [Contamination Factor (Cf), with the geo-accumulation index (Igeo)], the availability level [metals bound to different fractions, risk assessment code (RAC)], and the biological toxicity level [effect range low (ERL) and effect range medium (ERM)]. The results of all the indices indicate that Cu is the element of concern in the Lower Baram River sediments. The geochemical fractionation of major and trace elements were studied through sequential extraction and the results indicated a higher concentration of Mn in the exchangeable fraction. The element of concern, Cu, was found to be highly associated in the organic bound (F4) fraction during both seasons and a change in the redox, possibly due to storms or dredging activities may stimulate the release of Cu into the overlying waters of the Lower Baram River.
  5. Anand Kumar A, Rameshkumar G, Ravichandran S, Nagarajan R, Prabakaran K, Ramesh M
    J Parasit Dis, 2017 Mar;41(1):55-61.
    PMID: 28316388 DOI: 10.1007/s12639-016-0749-6
    Isopods occur very commonly as parasites in food fishes. Parasitic isopods are typically marine and usually inhabit the warmer seas. They are blood-feeding; several species settle in the buccal cavity of fish, others live in the gill chamber or on the body surface including the fins. Isopods can cause morbidity and mortality in captive fish populations. The infestation usually pressure atrophy often accompanies the presence of larger parasites. The present study was aimed at collecting information on the neglected group of isopod parasites of the marine fishes from the Miri coastal environment, East Malaysia. A very little information available regarding the distribution of isopod parasites of Malaysian coastal environment. In the present study, nine isopod parasites were  oberved from ten marine fish species. The maximum number of parasites were observed in the months of June and October, 2013. Maximum prevalence was observed in October (50 %) and the minimum was observed in June (7.14 %). The parasitic infestation may lead to an economic loss in commercial fish species.
  6. Prabakaran K, Eswaramoorthi S, Nagarajan R, Anandkumar A, Franco FM
    Chemosphere, 2020 Aug;252:126430.
    PMID: 32200178 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126430
    By convention, dissolved trace elements in the river water are considered to be the fraction that passes through a 0.45 μm filter. However, several researchers have considered filtration cut-off other than 0.45 μm for the separation of dissolved trace elements from particulate fraction. Recent research indicated that trace elements could exist in particulate form as colloids and natural nanoparticles. Moreover, the trace elements in the continental dust (aerosols) constitute a significant component in their geochemical cycling. Due to their high mobility, the trace elements in the micron and sub-micron scale have biogeochemical significance in the coastal zone. In this context, this study focuses on the highly mobile fraction of trace elements in particulates (<11 μm) and dissolved form in the Lower Baram River. A factor model utilizing trace elements in the dissolved and mobile phase in the particulates (<11 μm) along with water column characteristics and the partition coefficient (Kd) of the trace elements indicated a more significant role for manganese oxyhydroxides in trace element transport. Perhaps, iron oxyhydroxides play a secondary role. The factor model further illustrated the dissolution of aluminium and authigenic clay formation. Except for Fe and Al, the contamination risk of mobile trace elements in particulates (<11 μm) together with dissolved form are within the permissible limits of the Malaysian water quality standards during monsoon (MON) and postmonsoon (POM) seasons.
  7. Anandkumar A, Nagarajan R, Sellappa Gounder E, Prabakaran K
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 1):132069.
    PMID: 34523457 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132069
    Miri city has a dynamic coastal environment, mainly influenced by intensive sedimentation from the Baram River and excessive trace metal loading by the Miri River, which are significant environmental concerns. As the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of the trace metals in the sediments are largely controlled by their particulate speciation, the modified BCR sequential extraction protocol was applied to determine the particulate speciation of trace metals in the coastal sediments of Miri, to unravel the seasonal geochemical processes responsible for known observations, and to identify possible sources of these trace metals. The granulometric analysis results showed that littoral currents aided by the monsoonal winds have influenced the grain size distribution of the sediments, enabling us to divide the study area into north-east and south-west segments where the geochemical composition are distinct. The Cu (>84%) and Zn (82%) concentrations are predominantly associated with the exchangeable fraction, which is readily bioavailable. Pb and Cd are dominant in non-residual fractions and other metals viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cr are dominant in the residual fraction. Using Pearson's correlation and factor analysis, the major mechanisms controlling the chemistry of the sediments are identified as association of Cu and Zn with fine fraction sediments, sulphide oxidation in the SW segment of the study area, atmospheric fallout of Pb and Cd in the river basins, precipitation of dissolved Fe and Mn supplied from the rivers and remobilization of Mn from the coastal sediments. Based on various pollution indices, it is inferred that the coastal sediments of NW Borneo are contaminated with Cu and Zn, and are largely bioavailable, which can be a threat to the local aquatic organisms, coral reefs, and coastal mangroves.
  8. Nagarajan R, Eswaramoorthi SG, Anandkumar A, Ramkumar M
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2023 May 29;192:115090.
    PMID: 37263028 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.115090
    Miri River is a tropical river in Borneo that drains on flat terrain and urbanised area and debauches into the South China Sea. This paper documents the environmental status of this river, and provides an insight into the provenance using bulk chemistry of the sediments, and brings out the geochemical mobility, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of some critical elements based on BCR sequential extraction. The sediments are intense to moderately weathered and recycled products of Neogene sedimentary rocks. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the river favoured an upstream section dominated by fine sand, while the downstream sediments are medium silt. Based on the bulk geochemistry, the Miri River sediments are moderate to considerably contaminated by Cu, Mo, and As in the upstream and by Sb, As and Cu in the downstream. The potential ecological risk values are low except Cu and a significant biological impact is expected in downstream due to Cu, As, Zn and Cr. The mobility, bioavailability and Risk Assessment Code values for Zn and Mn are higher and thus may pose moderate to very high risk to aquatic organisms. Though a high bulk concentration of Cu is observed, the association of Cu with the bioavailable fraction is low.
  9. Hema CR, Paulraj MP, Yaacob S, Adom AH, Nagarajan R
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2011;696:565-72.
    PMID: 21431597 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7046-6_57
    A brain machine interface (BMI) design for controlling the navigation of a power wheelchair is proposed. Real-time experiments with four able bodied subjects are carried out using the BMI-controlled wheelchair. The BMI is based on only two electrodes and operated by motor imagery of four states. A recurrent neural classifier is proposed for the classification of the four mental states. The real-time experiment results of four subjects are reported and problems emerging from asynchronous control are discussed.
  10. Browne N, Braoun C, McIlwain J, Nagarajan R, Zinke J
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e7382.
    PMID: 31428541 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7382
    For reefs in South East Asia the synergistic effects of rapid land development, insufficient environmental policies and a lack of enforcement has led to poor water quality and compromised coral health from increased sediment and pollution. Those inshore turbid coral reefs, subject to significant sediment inputs, may also inherit some resilience to the effects of thermal stress and coral bleaching. We studied the inshore turbid reefs near Miri, in northwest Borneo through a comprehensive assessment of coral cover and health in addition to quantifying sediment-related parameters. Although Miri's Reefs had comparatively low coral species diversity, dominated by massive and encrusting forms of Diploastrea, Porites, Montipora, Favites, Dipsastrea and Pachyseris, they were characterized by a healthy cover ranging from 22 to 39%. We found a strong inshore to offshore gradient in hard coral cover, diversity and community composition as a direct result of spatial differences in sediment at distances <10 km. As well as distance to shore, we included other environmental variables like reef depth and sediment trap accumulation and particle size that explained 62.5% of variation in benthic composition among sites. Miri's reefs showed little evidence of coral disease and relatively low prevalence of compromised health signs including bleaching (6.7%), bioerosion (6.6%), pigmentation response (2.2%), scars (1.1%) and excessive mucus production (0.5%). Tagged colonies of Diploastrea and Pachyseris suffering partial bleaching in 2016 had fully (90-100%) recovered the following year. There were, however, seasonal differences in bioerosion rates, which increased five-fold after the 2017 wet season. Differences in measures of coral physiology, like that of symbiont density and chlorophyll a for Montipora, Pachyseris and Acropora, were not detected among sites. We conclude that Miri's reefs may be in a temporally stable state given minimal recently dead coral and a limited decline in coral cover over the last two decades. This study provides further evidence that turbid coral reefs exposed to seasonally elevated sediment loads can exhibit relatively high coral cover and be resilient to disease and elevated sea surface temperatures.
  11. Anandkumar A, Nagarajan R, Prabakaran K, Bing CH, Rajaram R, Li J, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2019 Aug;145:56-66.
    PMID: 31590824 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.05.002
    The concentration of nine trace elements were analyzed in the different tissue organs of commonly available crabs (Portunus sanguinolentus, Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrate) and bivalve (Polymesoda erosa) species collected from the Miri coast, Borneo in order to evaluate the potential health risk by consumption of these aquatic organisms. Among the analyzed organs, metal accumulation was higher in the gill tissues. The essential (Cu and Zn) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) elements showed the highest (i.e. Zn) and lowest concentrations (i.e. Cd) in their tissue organs, respectively. The estimated daily intake and hazard indices of all metals in the muscle indicate that the measured values were below the provisional tolerable daily intake suggested by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Compared to Malaysian and international seafood guideline values the results obtained from the present study are lower than the permissible limits and safe for consumption.
  12. Thiagamani SMK, Nagarajan R, Jawaid M, Anumakonda V, Siengchin S
    Waste Manag, 2017 Nov;69:445-454.
    PMID: 28774586 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.07.035
    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables.
  13. Nagarajan R, Jonathan MP, Roy PD, Wai-Hwa L, Prasanna MV, Sarkar SK, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Aug 15;73(1):369-73.
    PMID: 23790448 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.05.036
    Forty-three sediment samples were collected from the beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia to identify the enrichment of partially leached trace metals (PLTMs) from six different tourist beaches. The samples were analyzed for PLTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. The concentration pattern suggest that the southern side of the study area is enriched with Fe (1821-6097 μg g(-1)), Mn (11.57-90.22 μg g(-1)), Cr (51.50-311 μg g(-1)), Ni (18-51 μg g(-1)), Pb (8.81-84.05 μg g(-1)), Sr (25.95-140.49 μg g(-1)) and Zn (12.46-35.04 μg g(-1)). Compared to the eco-toxicological values, Cr>Effects range low (ERL), Lowest effect level (LEL), Severe effect level (SEL); Cu>Unpolluted sediments, ERL, LEL; Pb>Unpolluted sediments and Ni>ERL and LEL. Comparative results with other regions indicate that Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn are higher, indicating an external input rather than natural process.
  14. Thiagamani SMK, Krishnasamy S, Muthukumar C, Tengsuthiwat J, Nagarajan R, Siengchin S, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Nov 01;140:637-646.
    PMID: 31437507 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.166
    This work focuses on the fabrication of hybrid bio-composites using green epoxy as the matrix material, hemp (H) and sisal (S) fibre mats as the reinforcements. The hybrid composite with sisal/hemp fibres were fabricated by cost effective hand lay-up technique, followed by hot press with different stacking sequences. Static properties of the composites such as tensile, compressive, inter-laminar shear strengths (ILSS) and hardness were examined. The physical properties such as density, void content, water absorption and thickness swelling were also analyzed. The experimental results indicate that hybrid composites exhibited minor variation in tensile strength when the stacking sequence was altered. The hybrid composite with the intercalated arrangement (HSHS) exhibited the highest tensile modulus when compared with the other hybrid counterparts. Hybrid composites (SHHS and HSSH) offered 40% higher values of compressive strength than the other layering arrangements. HHHH sample exhibited the highest ILSS value of 4.08 MPa. Typical failure characteristics of the short beam test such as inter-laminar shear cracks in the transverse direction, micro-buckling and fibre rupture were also observed.
  15. Anand Kumar A, Rameshkumar G, Ravichandran S, Priya ER, Nagarajan R, Leng AG
    J Parasit Dis, 2015 Jun;39(2):206-10.
    PMID: 26064001 DOI: 10.1007/s12639-013-0320-7
    To identify the isopod parasite, which has been recorded from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes. During the present study, four cymothoid isopods are reported three genera, including Cymothoa eremita, Lobothorax typus, Nerocila longispina and Nerocila loveni. Nerocila longispina and N. loveni are also previously reported from Malaysia and two additional cymothoids C. eremita and L. typus are reported for the first record of Miri coast, East Malaysia. New hosts were identified for N. loveni on Chirocentrus dorab for the first time in the world fauna. The Parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. These parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder. Marine fish parasitology is a rapidly developing field of aquatic science.
  16. Krishnasamy S, Thiagamani SMK, Muthu Kumar C, Nagarajan R, R M S, Siengchin S, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Dec 01;141:1-13.
    PMID: 31472211 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.231
    Bio-composites are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly, could reduce the overall cost and provide lightweight due to the low density of the natural fibers. In a bid to compete with the synthetic fiber reinforced composites, a single natural fiber composite may not be a good choice to obtain optimal properties. Hence, hybrid composites are produced by adding two or more natural fibers together to obtain improved properties, such as mechanical, physical, thermal, water absorption, acoustic and dynamic, among others. Regarding thermal stability, the composites showed a significant change by varying the individual fiber compositions, fiber surface treatments, addition of fillers and coupling agents. The glass transition temperature and melting point obtained from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are not the same values for several hybrid composites, since the volume variation was not always parallel with the enthalpy change. However, the difference between the temperature calculated from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry was lower. Significantly, this critical reviewed study has a potential of guiding all composite designers, manufacturers and users on right selection of composite materials for thermal applications, such as engine components (covers), heat shields and brake ducts, among others.
  17. Cale EM, Gorman J, Radakovich NA, Crooks ET, Osawa K, Tong T, et al.
    Immunity, 2017 05 16;46(5):777-791.e10.
    PMID: 28514685 DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.04.011
    Most HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies isolated to date exhibit unusual characteristics that complicate their elicitation. Neutralizing antibodies that target the V1V2 apex of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer feature unusually long protruding loops, which enable them to penetrate the HIV-1 glycan shield. As antibodies with loops of requisite length are created through uncommon recombination events, an alternative mode of apex binding has been sought. Here, we isolated a lineage of Env apex-directed neutralizing antibodies, N90-VRC38.01-11, by using virus-like particles and conformationally stabilized Env trimers as B cell probes. A crystal structure of N90-VRC38.01 with a scaffolded V1V2 revealed a binding mode involving side-chain-to-side-chain interactions that reduced the distance the antibody loop must traverse the glycan shield, thereby facilitating V1V2 binding via a non-protruding loop. The N90-VRC38 lineage thus identifies a solution for V1V2-apex binding that provides a more conventional B cell pathway for vaccine design.
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