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  1. Anezaki K, Kannan N, Nakano T
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Oct;22(19):14478-88.
    PMID: 24809497 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2985-6
    This study reports the concentrations and congener partners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially available paints. Polycyclic-type pigments containing dioxazine violet (pigment violet (PV) 23, PV37) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (PR254, PR255) were found to contain PCB-56, PCB-77, PCB-40, PCB-5, and PCB-12, and PCB-6, PCB-13, and PCB-15, respectively, as major congeners. Dioxazine violet is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from o-dichlorobenzene, which is used as a solvent during synthesis, and diketopyrrolopyrrole is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from p-chlorobenzonitrile. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PV23 or PV37 was 0.050-29 mg/kg, and toxic equivalency (TEQ) values ranged 1.1-160 pg-TEQ/g. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PR254 or PR255 was 0.0019-2.4 mg/kg. Naphthol AS is an azo-type pigment, and PCB-52 was detected in paint containing pigment red (PR) 9 with 2,5-dichloroaniline as its source. PCB-146, PCB-149, and PCB-153 were identified from paint containing PR112 produced from 2,4,5-trichloroaniline, as major congeners. These congeners have chlorine positions similar to aniline, indicating that these congeners are by-products obtained during the synthesis of pigments. The concentrations of PCBs in paints containing PR9 and PR112 were 0.0042-0.43 and 0.0044-3.8 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding TEQ for PR112 was 0.0039-8.6 pg-TEQ/g.
  2. Haga Y, Suzuki M, Matsumura C, Okuno T, Tsurukawa M, Fujimori K, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Jun;25(17):16446-16454.
    PMID: 29656357 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1927-0
    In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs. The concentration of OH-PCBs in PCB transport workers' urine (0.55~11 μg/g creatinine (Cre)) was higher than in PCB researchers' urine (
  3. Wu H, Nakano T, Daikoku E, Morita C, Kohno T, Lian HH, et al.
    J Med Microbiol, 2005 Dec;54(Pt 12):1117-1125.
    PMID: 16278423 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46158-0
    Helicobacter pylori CagA modifies the signalling of host cells and causes gastric diseases. Although CagA is injected into gastric epithelial cells through the type IV secretion machinery, it remains unclear how CagA is transported towards the machinery in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this study, it was determined that the proton-dependent intracytoplasmic transport system correlates with the priming of CagA secretion from H. pylori. The cytotoxicity of neutral-pH- and acidic-pH-treated H. pylori was examined in the AGS cell line. The amount of phosphorylated CagA in AGS cells incubated with acidic-pH- and neutral-pH-treated H. pylori was determined by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot. The production of CagA and adherence of the treated bacteria were examined by enzyme immunoassay and light microscopy, respectively. To clarify how CagA is transported towards the inner membrane of the treated bacteria, the localization of CagA was analysed by immunoelectron microscopy. The proportion of hummingbird cells in the AGS cell line rapidly increased following the inoculation of acidic-pH-treated H. pylori but increased more slowly with neutral-pH-treated H. pylori, and the phenomenon correlated with the amount of phosphorylated CagA in AGS cells. CagA was densely localized near the inner membrane in the acidic-pH-treated bacterial cytoplasm, but this localization was not observed in the neutral-pH-treated bacterial cytoplasm, suggesting that CagA shifts from the centre to the peripheral portion of the cytoplasm as a result of an extracellular decrease in pH. This phenomenon depended on the presence of UreI, a proton-dependent urea channel, but not on the presence of urea. The pH treatments did not enhance CagA production or the adherence of the bacterium to AGS cells. The authors propose that H. pylori possesses a proton-dependent intracytoplasmic transport system that probably accelerates priming for CagA injection.
  4. Wakatsuki M, Kato S, Ohno T, Banu PA, Hoang NC, Yadamsuren E, et al.
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2019 09 01;105(1):183-189.
    PMID: 31125594 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.04.039
    PURPOSE: This multi-institutional observational study conducted among 11 countries in East and Southeast Asia aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of prophylactic extended-field concurrent chemoradiation therapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between October 2007 and May 2016, 106 patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiation therapy consisted of pelvic irradiation (total dose, 50 Gy in 25 fractions including central shielding), prophylactic paraortic regional irradiation (36-40 Gy in 20 fractions), and either high- or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 21 to 28 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions for high-dose-rate ICBT and 40 to 41 Gy in 1 to 2 fractions for low-dose-rate ICBT. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2) were administered during the radiation therapy course.

    RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were enrolled. Of these, 9 had major protocol violations and 2 did not receive treatment because of worsened general condition. Thus, 95 patients were evaluable. The median follow-up was 56 months. Of the 95 patients, 76 (80%) received 4 or 5 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 20 of the patients (21%), and late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 3%. The 2-year local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival rate for all patients were 96%, 78%, and 90%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that prophylactic extended-field concurrent chemoradiation therapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

  5. Ohno T, Thinh DH, Kato S, Devi CR, Tung NT, Thephamongkhol K, et al.
    J Radiat Res, 2013 May;54(3):467-73.
    PMID: 23192700 DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrs115
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, for the treatment of N2-3 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in Asian countries, especially regions of South and Southeast Asian countries where NPC is endemic. Between 2005 and 2009, 121 patients with NPC (T1-4 N2-3 M0) were registered from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines, China and Bangladesh. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m (2)), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on Day 1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m(2) on Days 1-5) for 3 cycles. Of the 121 patients, 56 patients (46%) required interruption of RT. The reasons for interruption of RT were acute non-hematological toxicities such as mucositis, pain and dermatitis in 35 patients, hematological toxicities in 11 patients, machine break-down in 3 patients, poor general condition in 2 patients, and others in 8 patients. Of the patients, 93% completed at least 4 cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy, and 82% completed at least 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. With a median follow-up time of 46 months for the surviving 77 patients, the 3-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 89%, 74% and 66%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3-4 toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of the patients, respectively. In conclusion, further improvement in survival and locoregional control is necessary, although our regimen showed acceptable toxicities.
  6. Ohno T, Wakatsuki M, Thinh DH, Tung NT, Erawati D, Supriana N, et al.
    J Radiat Res, 2016 Jan;57(1):44-9.
    PMID: 26254458 DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrv046
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin for T3-4 and N0-1 nasopharyngeal cancer. Between 2005 and 2010, 70 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (T3-4 N0-1 M0, World Health Organization Type 2-3) from Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand were registered. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)). Neither adjuvant nor induction chemotherapy was given. Ninety-three percent of the patients completed at least four cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy. The median total doses for the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes were 70 and 66 Gy, respectively. The median overall treatment time of concurrent chemoradiotherapy was 52 days. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3-4 acute toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of patients, respectively. With a median follow-up time of 52 months for the 40 surviving patients, the 3-year local control, locoregional tumor control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 80%, 75%, 74% and 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the current results illustrate that our concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen was feasible, but disease control remained insufficient. Further research is encouraged in order to improve clinical outcomes.
  7. Okonogi N, Wakatsuki M, Mizuno H, Fukuda S, Cao J, Kodrat H, et al.
    J Radiat Res, 2020 Jul 06;61(4):608-615.
    PMID: 32367130 DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rraa025
    3D image-guided brachytherapy (3D-IGBT) has become a standard therapy for cervical cancer. However, the use of 3D-IGBT is limited in East and Southeast Asia. This study aimed to clarify the current usage patterns of 3D-IGBT for cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia. A questionnaire-based survey was performed in 11 countries within the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia. The questionnaire collected the treatment information of patients with cervical cancer who underwent 3D-IGBT. The cumulative external beam radiotherapy and 3D-IGBT doses were summarized and normalized to a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) using a linear-quadratic model. Of the 11 institutions representing the participating countries, six (55%) responded to the questionnaire. Overall, data of 36 patients were collected from the six institutions. Twenty-one patients underwent whole-pelvic irradiation and 15 underwent whole-pelvic irradiation with central shielding. Patients received a median of four treatment sessions of 3D-IGBT (range, 2-6). All 3D-IGBT sessions were computed tomography (CT)-based and not magnetic resonance image-based. The median doses to the high-risk clinical target volume D90, bladder D2cc, rectum D2cc and sigmoid colon D2cc were 80.9 Gy EQD2 (range, 58.9-105.9), 77.7 Gy EQD2 (range, 56.9-99.1), 68.0 Gy EQD2 (range, 48.6-90.7) and 62.0 Gy EQD2 (range, 39.6-83.7), respectively. This study elucidated the current patterns of 3D-IGBT for the treatment of cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia. The results indicate the feasibility of observational studies of CT-based 3D-IGBT for cervical cancer in these countries.
  8. Thompson AM, Smit HGJ, Witte JC, Stauffer RM, Johnson BJ, Morris G, et al.
    Bull Am Meteorol Soc, 2019 Jan;100(1):155-171.
    PMID: 33005057 DOI: 10.1175/bams-d-17-0311.1
    The ozonesonde is a small balloon-borne instrument that is attached to a standard radiosonde to measure profiles of ozone from the surface to 35 km with ~100-m vertical resolution. Ozonesonde data constitute a mainstay of satellite calibration and are used for climatologies and analysis of trends, especially in the lower stratosphere where satellites are most uncertain. The electrochemical-concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde has been deployed at ~100 stations worldwide since the 1960s, with changes over time in manufacture and procedures, including details of the cell chemical solution and data processing. As a consequence, there are biases among different stations and discontinuities in profile time-series from individual site records. For 22 years the Jülich [Germany] Ozone Sonde Intercomparison Experiment (JOSIE) has periodically tested ozonesondes in a simulation chamber designated the World Calibration Centre for Ozonesondes (WCCOS) by WMO. In October-November 2017 a JOSIE campaign evaluated the sondes and procedures used in SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes), a 14-station sonde network operating in the tropics and subtropics. A distinctive feature of the 2017 JOSIE was that the tests were conducted by operators from eight SHADOZ stations. Experimental protocols for the SHADOZ sonde configurations, which represent most of those in use today, are described, along with preliminary results. SHADOZ stations that follow WMO-recommended protocols record total ozone within 3% of the JOSIE reference instrument. These results and prior JOSIEs demonstrate that regular testing is essential to maintain best practices in ozonesonde operations and to ensure high-quality data for the satellite and ozone assessment communities.
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