A total of 32 clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae, including members of the 01 and 0139 serogroup
were collected from Klang, Selangor; Penang Island; Samarahan, Sarawak and Miri, Sarawak in Malaysia. In general, all the isolates except the 0139 serotype expressed low resistance to all the antibiotics tested with their Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices ranged from 0.10 to 0.48. The presence of ctx gene that encoded the cholera toxin was confirmed in all these clinical isolates by polymerase chain reaction. The results from the RAPD-PCR were analyzed using the RAPDistance software (Version 1.04). From the dendrogram generated, two main groups were observed which were subdivided into two clusters each. The Selangor’s isolates and the 0139 Penang’s isolates formed one group whereas the Samarahan, Sarawak isolates and the Miri, Sarawak isolates made up the other group, thus delineating their different sources of origin based on their geographical location.
The revolution of agriculture through biotechnology have produced large-scale of genetically
modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified
organisms (GMOs). It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived
ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop
methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This
study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for
the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with
the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common
transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S); Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase
terminator (NOS); 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene; and Cry1Ab
delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out
by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS) as the certified reference material for soybean
that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and
soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize
that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene
prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1%) of
the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7%) of the soybean food products showed positive
results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed
positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products
and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the
food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’
unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide
leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a main foodborne disease in seafood and generally seafood is
easily deteriorates in quality of color and flavor. In this study, clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
extract shows potent antibacterial activity against growth of antibiotics resistant Vibrio
parahaemolyticus on seafood samples (cockles and shrimps). Vibrio parahaemolyticus was
artificial contaminates on the samples with 106 CFU/ml. The samples were treated with different
concentration of cloves extract with 10 mg/ml which are 0.5%, 5% and 10% concentration
from methanol food grade extraction in 0 hr, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and
120 min. Tab water and deionized water were selected as a negative control. As a result, the
amount of 10 % cloves managed to mitigates the number of V. parahaemolyticus on seafood
samples in 5 minutes and 15 min on both samples. Therefore, our results signify the fact that
cloves can be apply as natural sanitizer which could meet consumer demands for safe and
traditionally consumed either raw without any undesirable effect when applied in the seafood
Studies indicate that bacterial cross-contamination occurs during food preparation where bacteria can retent on the food contact surfaces and cause illness. The study evaluated the adherence of Campylobacter spp. to cutting boards, blades of knives and hands after cutting chilled, raw broiler parts (thighs + drumsticks, wings and livers). The adherence to cucumber cuts that were cut using the unwashed boards and knives was also analyzed. Generally, utensils have higher mean of Campylobacter spp. retained to them (1.4-223.3 MPN/ml rinse) than hands (0.7-43.4 MPN/ml rinse); however, Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant differences in the bacterial numbers found among the different surfaces. The transfer rates of Campylobacter spp. from utensils to cucumber cuts varied from 0% to more than 100%. The bacteria detected could be from the utensils and cucumber contamination before purchase or due to other factors where further investigation is required. The possibility is there for Campylobacter to spread to contact surfaces during chilled broiler handling; therefore, utensils and hands involved should be washed thoroughly especially before ready-to-eat food preparation.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most widely recognized pathogenic Vibrio species due to numerous outbreaks and its’ wide occurrence in marine environment. In this study, 32 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles were tested for sensitivity to 16 antibiotics and the presence of plasmids. All the isolates were multi-resistance, defined as resistant to atleast three different antibiotics with multiple antibiotic resistance indexes ranging from 0.31 to 0.69, indicating the isolates originate from high risk sources of contamination where antibiotics are often used. In the plasmid profiling test, only 15 isolates (47%) harbored plasmid DNA, which ranged in size from 2.7 to 56.2 kb, separating the isolates into 14 plasmid profiles. Hence, food contaminated with antibiotic resistant V. parahaemolyticus could be a major threat to public health due to the distinct possibility that they can be a significant reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance determinants that can be transferred intra or interspecies. As in many developing countries, raw food hygiene and antimicrobial resistance epidemiology is still in the infancy stage in the locality of the study and thus our data provide a current baseline profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of V. parahaemolyticusfrom cockles in Padang, Indonesia.
The present study aimed to provide an insight of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 phenotype profiles (carbon sources and sensitivity to osmolytes and pH) using Phenotypic MicroArray (PM) system in response to optimal and suboptimal temperature. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 showed utilization carbon sources from amino acids and carboxylates but not from sugars. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 is sensitive to NaCl at 2% and above but showed survival in a wide range of food preservatives (sodium lactate, sodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate). When incubated at suboptimal temperature, no phenotype loss was observed in carbon source plates. Phenotype loss of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 was observed in sodium chloride (1%), sodium sulphate (2-3%), sodium formate (1%), sodium lactate (7-12%), sodium phosphate pH7 (100mM and 200mM), ammonium sulphate pH8 (50mM), sodium nitrate (60mM, 80mM and 100mM), sodium nitrite (10mM), and growth in pH5. The phenotypic profile from present study will provide a better insight related to survival of C. jejuni ATCC 33560.
A total of 112 burger patties (35 beef burger patties, 39 chicken burger patties and 38 fish burger patties) which are commercially available at retail level were investigated for the presence and number of Listeria monocytogenes. These samples were analyzed using MPN-PCR method and conventional culturing methods. L. monocytogenes was detected in 33.3% of chicken burger patties, 22.9% of beef patties, and 10.5% of fish patty samples. From all contaminated raw burger patties, the estimated count of L. monocytogenes was ranged from 3 to 75 MPN/g. The results suggest that burger act as a potential source of listeriosis if the contaminated burger patty is consumed without adequate cooking. The risk associated with consumption of these samples was found to be high particularly for processed food at retail level in Malaysia. Therefore, food manufacturers play an important role in monitoring the manufacturing process and conduct a periodical surveillance on microbiological quality assessment on the processing plants. Besides, there is a need to increase awareness of consumers and food handlers to practice proper cooking of the burger patties before the point of consumption, to reduce the risk of listeria infection.
The aim of this study is to compare the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in chicken retail at wet markets and hypermarkets. Campylobacter contaminations in chicken samples from wet market (70.7%) were comparatively lower than chicken samples sold in hypermarket (91.4%). Of the 77 Campylobacter isolates, 59 (76.6%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 18 (23.4%) isolates were identified as C. coli. All Campylobacterisolates are multi-resistant to the antimicrobial agents. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (92.2%) and erythromycin (98.7%). This study concluded that chicken samples from both wet market and hypermarket were contaminated with Campylobacter, most of which are antimicrobial-resistant strains.
In this study, RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR were used to study the epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles in Padang, Indonesia. The Gold Oligo OPAR3 primer produced bands ranged from 1-8 with sizes from 0.2 – 5.0 kb and the Gold Oligo OPAR8 primer produced 1-7 bands with sizes 0.7 – 1.5 kb. Both primers produced twenty five RAPD patterns with a few isolates failed to produce any products. Based on phylogenetic dendrogram, all the isolates can be divided into 6 major clusters with similarity between 0 to 52%. For the ERIC primer, it produced bands ranged from 3-15 with sizes from 0.1 – 5.0 kb and twenty seven different ERIC patterns. Construction of the phylogenetic dendogram showed the isolates can be divided into 4 major clusters with similarity between 56 to 86%. The high diversity of both processes may be due to the multiple contamination sources of V. parahaemolyticus.
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a gram positive food-borne pathogen that is able to form biofilm on food factory surfaces. Formation of biofilm makes the bacteria much more resistance to environmental stresses such as disinfectant. The extracellular polymeric matrix (biofilm structure) which is mostly comprised of sticky extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and proteins can protect bacteria in a harsh condition. The efficiency of four disinfectants on removing L. monocytogenes biofilm was investigated. Five concentration levels (100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25%) of disinfectants were tested. In the microtitre assay, the optical density at 595 nm CV-OD595 value, was used to measure the amount of remained biofilm after 24 h. Results showed that disinfectants did not have significant effect on removing L. monocytogenes biofilm. Formation of L. monocytogenes biofilm significantly decreased the efficiency of disinfectants. Biofilm produced by strain number 9 showed higher resistance to disinfectant. Low concentrations (
Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries. Among the strains examined, 36 RAPD-types were found when amplified with primers OPA8 and OPA10. The analysis shows the majority of V. parahaemolyticus isolates originated from seafood were branched into four major clusters at 18.2%, 20.7% 34% and 3.4% similarity levels. This suggests that there is potential for a single strain to be distributed widely within a population and there also potential for multiple contaminating strains of different clonal lineages to be present within the same population. Optimum temperature (37ºC) was the highest and stable formation of biofilm. The total percentage of biofilm formation at 37ºC was 33.33% for each of weak, moderate and strong biofilm producers. Room temperature produces 61.1% of weak biofilm producer, while 13. 89% for moderate biofilm producers and produce 25% of strong biofilm. While a total of 91.67% weak biofilm producers at 4ºC and 8:33% for room temperature and no growth of strong biofilm. Upon analysis, strong biofilm was tracked from the largest group at 37°C and room temperature which produce 27.27% of strong biofilm producer respectively. Interestingly, they are derived from cockles.
Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157 were identified from “selom” (Oenanthe stolonifera), “pegaga” (Centella asiatica), beef, chicken, lamb, buffalo, “ulam Raja” (Cosmos caudatus) and “tenggek burung” (Euodia redlevi). The bacteria were recovered using chromagenic agar. Isolated Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli 0157 were further characterized by plasmid profiling and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The virulence genes of the isolates (VT1, VT2, LT, ST, eaeA, inV) that produces pathogenic Escherichia coli and 16S rRNA gene were screened by a multiplex PCR assay. The plasmid profiling analysis showed that out of 176 isolates, only 103 isolates contained plasmids. ERIC-PCR analysis generated amplified products in the range of ~150 bp to > 1000 bp categorizing isolates into a total of 52 different profiles. Multiplex PCR showed that 20 (32.3%) of the isolates carried eaeA gene, 6 (9.7%) isolates possessed inV genes, only 1 (1.6%) have VT2 genes and 1 (1.6%) as well carried VT1 genes, 2 (3.2%) of the isolates harboured LT genes, and only 1 (1.6%) isolate possessed ST genes. There were no correlation between plasmid, ERIC-PCR and virulence genes profiles.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as a frequent causal agent of human gastroenteritis due to the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled seafood in many Asian countries. The number of V. parahaemolyticus cases reported is on the rise, and this becomes a concern to the Asian countries as seafood is favoured by Asians. This study aimed to detect and quantify V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters and to determine the risk associated with the consumption of raw oysters. A total of 30 oyster samples were collected and analysed in this study. MPN-PCR and MPN-Plating methods were employed and carried out concurrently to determine the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters. The results showed that the prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus in oysters was 50.00% (15/30) where the MPN/g range was < 3 – > 11000 MPN/g for MPN-PCR method, and 40.00% (12/30) where the MPN/g range was < 3 – 4300 MPN/g for MPN-Plating method. MPN-PCR method was able to estimate the level of virulence (tdh+ and trh+) V. parahaemolyticus in the raw oysters where 10.00% (3/30) of samples were identified to be in a range of 3 – 30 MPN/g. A microbial risk assessment was conducted based on the enumeration data obtained from MPN-PCR method using @risk. The probability of illness annually was 1.76 X 10-6 with a prediction of 31 cases to occur with respect to the exposed Malaysian population, while the rate per 100,000 people was estimated to be at 0.104. In addition, the antibiogram of V. parahaemolyticus was determined using Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion Test and the results indicated that the isolates were highly resistant towards Bacitracin (100.00%), Vancomycin (100.00%) and were least resistant to Chloramphenicol (8.70%). The MAR index of the isolates ranged from 0.17 to 0.50. In accordance with the results from this study, the consumption of raw oysters is a risk factor for V. parahaemolyticus infection and proactive actions should be taken to reduce the risk of the pathogen in order to improve public health.
To date, cholera has cycle the world seven times through the seven pandemic cycles that has
affected tens of millions of people. The objective of this study was to determine the presence
and density as well as the antibiotic resistance profile of Vibrio cholerae isolated from catfish
(Pangasius hypohthalamus). From the combination of the Most Probable Number-Polymerase
Chain Reaction-plating on TCBS agar methods, V. cholerae was detected in 32 samples and
V. cholerae O139 was detected in 7 samples, with a density ranging between
This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from
human and environmental surfaces in a research laboratory. A total of 320 samples from nostril
(n=80), hand (n=80), door knob (n=80) and table surface (n=80) were collected for 16 weeks,
before and after work. A total number of 256 samples were found positive for Staphylococcus
aureus. Out of 80 randomly selected isolates, 50 (62.5%) isolates were resistant to methicillin
(MRSA). Hence, the precautionary measures should be taken on self and environmental
hygiene as MRSA may be transferred from humans and environmental surfaces.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic Gram-negative bacterium that is considered among
gastrointestinal pathogens. Thirty isolates were tested for their susceptibility using 14 different
antibiotics. One V. parahaemolyticus isolate was resistant to 10 antibiotics (cefotaxime,
ceftazidime, tetracycline, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin,
amoxicillin-calv-acid, and cefepime). The V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant to
ampicillin (90%), amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (63.3%), cefotaxime (60%), ceftazidime (46.7%),
cefepime (50%), tetracycline (36.6%), and amikacin (26.7%). However, the isolates were highly
susceptible to imipenem (100%), and piperacillin and gentamicin (96.7%). Approximately
55% of the isolates showed a multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of >0.2, thereby
indicating the high risk of sources where these isolates originated. The occurrence of MAR
asserted the importance of determining drug susceptibility and monitoring the antimicrobial
resistance profile to improve and ensure food safety and public health.
Cross contamination is one of the most important contributing factors in foodborne illness
originating in household environments. The objective of this research was to determine the
transfer between naturally contaminated chicken liver and leg to cutting board, hand glove,
knife and cucumber, during slicing. The microorganism tested was Campylobacter jejuni and
the results showed that the pathogen transferred to all utensils, at different transfer rate, despite
the low level of the naturally contaminating pathogen. With unknown concentration bacteria in
the naturally contaminated samples, a proportion of the utensils were still contaminated with C.
jejuni and not surprisingly, when the sample were contaminated with higher concentrations of
the pathogen, a higher proportion of the utensils had detectable C. jejuni cells present, though
in many cases cross contamination seems to be a random event. Transfer of the naturally
contaminating C. jejuni from the chicken liver and leg to the utensils were
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food-borne pathogen that has resulted in numerous
outbreaks around the world. Widespread distribution of the organism in various ecological
niches impedes the control measures. This study aimed to detect and quantify E. coli O157:H7
in beef sold in wet markets and hypermarkets in Malaysia and to determine the risk of E. coli
O157:H7 infection linked to consumption of beef. The rfbO157 and flicH7 primers targeted on
somatic antigen (O157) and flagellar antigen (H7) respectively of E. coli O157:H7 was used for
the MPN-PCR method. A total of 99 beef samples were collected from local wet markets and
hypermarkets. The highest E. coli O157:H7 contamination rate was observed in beef samples
collected from wet markets (89.50%), whereas the contamination rate in hyper market A and B
were compratively low (35.35 and 20% respectively). However, the microbial load was highest
in the beef samples from hypermarket A (1100 MPN/g) while E. coli O157:H7 bacterial load
in beef samples from hypermarket B and wet market ranged from 3 to 93 MPN/g and 3 to 240
MPN/g, respectively. Using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach
the risk was estimated incorporating the findings of the prevalence study and predictions
based on home storage, cooking and consumption patterns. Three different exposure pathways
were investigated to estimate the risk associated with contaminated beef and Monte Carlo
simulation was used to determine the level of uncertainty. The developed model predicated that
consumption of contaminated beef can be accountable for 1.83E+06 E. coli O157:H7 cases per
year in Malaysia. The reliability of the model, data gaps and further research needs, is discussed.
Through continuous improvement Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment provides valuable
insight into controlling and prevention strategies.
The aim of this study was to assess the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPNPCR) technique for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in salad vegetables in comparison with reference EN ISO 11290-2 and Food Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method using artificial and naturally contaminated samples. Based on recovery of L. monocytogenes from artificially contaminated samples, MPN-PCR showed a moderate correlation (R=0.67) between spiking concentration and microbial levels which was better than the FDA-BAM method (R=0.642) and ISO 11290-2:1998 method (R=0.655). With naturally contaminated samples, it was found that L. monocytogenes was detected in 25% of the vegetable samples using MPN-PCR; 15% of the samples by the FDA-BAM method and 8% of samples using ISO 11290-2:1998 method. Overall, MPN-PCR was found to be a rapid and reliable method that could facilitate the enumeration of L. monocytogenes in vegetables.
This goal of this study was to investigate the presence of Vibrio cholerae in street food,
namely satar and otak-otak, using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP),
multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR) and conventional plating on Thiosulphate
Citrate Bile-Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar methods. A total of 78 satar and 35 otak-otak were
purchased from different districts of Terengganu (Besut, Setiu, Kuala Terengganu and
Kemaman). V. cholerae was found in satar with LAMP (10.3%), mPCR (10.3%) and
plating (0%). No V. cholerae was found in otak-otak using the three methods. This might
be due to V. cholerae able to survive in satar after grilling due to its thickness which may
contribute to undercooking. This study concluded that low presence of V. cholerae in satar
and otak-otak can be detected by molecular methods but not the conventional plating
method. LAMP assay is a useful tool for rapid detection of pathogens in food due to its
simplicity, highly sensitive and visual interpretation capability. Though the prevalence of
V. cholerae was low in the samples, proper handling of this food will help in reducing the
risk of acquiring infection from V. cholerae in contaminated samples.