Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Pahlevan Sharif S
    Eur J Oncol Nurs, 2017 Apr;27:28-35.
    PMID: 28279393 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejon.2017.01.005
    PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the mediating role of uncertainty in the relationship between locus of control with quality of life, anxiety, and depression.

    METHODS: A descriptive and correlational survey was conducted in a private hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A convenience sample of 118 Malaysian breast cancer patients voluntarily participated in the study and responded to a set of questionnaires including: socio-demographic questionnaire, the short form of Locus of Control Scale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Short-Form Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale (SF-MUIS).

    RESULTS: The results revealed that breast cancer patients with higher internal locus of control and lower external locus of control experience a higher quality of life, lower anxiety, and lower depression. Also, uncertainty mediated the relationship between locus of control with quality of life and depression (quasi-significant).

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated the need for early, targeted psychological interventions seeking to gradually shift cancer patients' locus of control from external to internal in order to improve their quality of life and reduce their depression and anxiety. Moreover, health care providers by providing relevant information to cancer patients, especially for externally oriented patients, can reduce their uncertainty which in turn would improve their quality of life.

  2. Pahlevan Sharif S
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2017 Oct 09;30(8):717-727.
    PMID: 28958201 DOI: 10.1108/IJHCQA-12-2016-0190
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate psychometrically an instrument named the Breast Size Satisfaction Scale (BSSS) to assess breast size satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach The present scale was developed using a set of 16 computer-generated 3D images of breasts to overcome some of the limitations of existing instruments. The images were presented to participants and they were asked to select the figure that most accurately depicted their actual breast size and the figure that most closely represented their ideal breast size. Breast size satisfaction was computed by subtracting the absolute value of the difference between ideal and actual perceived size from 16, such that higher values indicate greater breast size satisfaction. Findings Study 1 ( n=65 female undergraduate students) showed good test-retest reliability and study 2 ( n=1,000 Iranian women, aged 18 years and above) provided support for convergent validity using a nomological network approach. Originality/value The BSSS demonstrated good psychometric properties and thus can be used in future studies to assess breast size satisfaction among women.
  3. Pahlevan Sharif S, Ong FS
    J Relig Health, 2019 Aug;58(4):1060-1071.
    PMID: 29511922 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-018-0587-1
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spirituality with quality of life and stress of Malay Muslim breast cancer patients in Malaysia. In addition, the moderating role of education on this relationship was examined. Participants consisted of 145 conveniently selected Malay breast cancer patients. The results indicated that the more spiritual respondents reported a higher level of quality of life and lower level of stress. Moreover, education weakened the relationship between spirituality with quality of life and stress.
  4. Pahlevan Sharif S, Abaeian V, Khanekharab J
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2018 Jun 11;31(5):391-399.
    PMID: 29865960 DOI: 10.1108/IJHCQA-02-2017-0026
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Persian version of the Attitude toward Breast Cancer Screening Procedures Scale (ABCSPS) among Iranian women. Design/methodology/approach In this methodological study, 1,000 Iranian women completed a demographic questionnaire and the 14-item Persian ABCSPS. The scale's construct validity was evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency and reliability were assessed using Cronbach's α and McDonald's coefficient ω. Findings The exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution accounting for 55.1 percent of the variance. The two-factor measurement model had a good fit with all factor loadings greater than 0.5, which were statistically significant. The results showed good reliability and internally consistency ( α=0.767 and 0.872; ω =0.979 and 0.997). Moreover, model structure was invariant across different income groups. Originality/value The Persian ABCSPS translation demonstrated good validity and reliability among Iranian women. The results also showed that the scale had a multidimensional structure. Regarding proper psychometric properties, the validated scale can be used in future studies as a reliable and relevant breast cancer screening attitude measure.
  5. Pahlevan Sharif S, Ahadzadeh AS, Perdamen HK
    Appl Nurs Res, 2017 Dec;38:88-94.
    PMID: 29241526 DOI: 10.1016/j.apnr.2017.09.012
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between uncertainty in illness and quality of life, and examine the mediating role of coping strategies and mood states in this relationship among breast cancer patients.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 135 Malaysian women with breast cancer completed questionnaires measuring uncertainty in illness, mood states (i.e. anxiety and depression), quality of life, and copying styles.

    RESULTS: The results showed an inverse correlation between uncertainty and quality of life after controlling for the effects of age, cancer stage and time since diagnosis. Moreover, the negative association between illness uncertainty and quality of life was mediated by coping strategies and mood states.

    CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that breast cancer patients experiencing a high level of uncertainty more likely use avoidant and less likely use active emotional coping strategies which in turn amplifies anxiety and depression and undermines their quality of life. While some interventions to reduce the adverse consequences of uncertainty are recommended, the findings indicated the need for targeted psychological interventions seeking to gradually shift cancer patients' coping strategies from avoidant to active emotional coping.

  6. Ahadzadeh AS, Pahlevan Sharif S, Ong FS, Khong KW
    J Med Internet Res, 2015;17(2):e45.
    PMID: 25700481 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.3564
    Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes.
  7. Pahlevan Sharif S, Ahadzadeh AS, Sharif Nia H
    J Adv Nurs, 2018 Apr;74(4):887-899.
    PMID: 29117444 DOI: 10.1111/jan.13501
    AIM: To examine the relationship between organizational support for nursing practice and nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction in hospital settings and to investigate the mediating role of psychological well-being in the aforementioned relationships.

    BACKGROUND: There has been growing concern about quality of care in healthcare organizations. The past research has documented the effect of nurse practice environment on nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism behind these associations.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken.

    METHODS: Data were collected from two large public hospitals in Iran between February - March 2017. A sample of 345 nurses participated in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and partial least squared-structural equation modelling.

    RESULTS: The results showed that nurses' perception of organizational support was related to their quality of care, job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Also, there was a positive relationship between nurses' psychological well-being and their quality of care and job satisfaction. Moreover, psychological well-being partially mediated the relationship between organizational support with nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that organizational support for nursing practice and psychological well-being are two factors that contribute to caring behaviour of nurses and their job satisfaction. Also, positively perceived organizational support generates favourable psychological well-being which in turn enhances nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of establishing a supportive nurse practice environment and paying attention to the nurses' psychological well-being in healthcare sectors.

  8. Teng S, Khong KW, Pahlevan Sharif S, Ahmed A
    JMIR Public Health Surveill, 2020 10 01;6(4):e19618.
    PMID: 33001036 DOI: 10.2196/19618
    BACKGROUND: Poor nutrition and food selection lead to health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. This study of YouTube comments aims to uncover patterns of food choices and the factors driving them, in addition to exploring the sentiments of healthy eating in networked communities.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study are to explore the determinants, motives, and barriers to healthy eating behaviors in online communities and provide insight into YouTube video commenters' perceptions and sentiments of healthy eating through text mining techniques.

    METHODS: This paper applied text mining techniques to identify and categorize meaningful healthy eating determinants. These determinants were then incorporated into hypothetically defined constructs that reflect their thematic and sentimental nature in order to test our proposed model using a variance-based structural equation modeling procedure.

    RESULTS: With a dataset of 4654 comments extracted from YouTube videos in the context of Malaysia, we apply a text mining method to analyze the perceptions and behavior of healthy eating. There were 10 clusters identified with regard to food ingredients, food price, food choice, food portion, well-being, cooking, and culture in the concept of healthy eating. The structural equation modeling results show that clusters are positively associated with healthy eating with all P values less than .001, indicating a statistical significance of the study results. People hold complex and multifaceted beliefs about healthy eating in the context of YouTube videos. Fruits and vegetables are the epitome of healthy foods. Despite having a favorable perception of healthy eating, people may not purchase commonly recognized healthy food if it has a premium price. People associate healthy eating with weight concerns. Food taste, variety, and availability are identified as reasons why Malaysians cannot act on eating healthily.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study offers significant value to the existing literature of health-related studies by investigating the rich and diverse social media data gleaned from YouTube. This research integrated text mining analytics with predictive modeling techniques to identify thematic constructs and analyze the sentiments of healthy eating.

  9. Pahlevan Sharif S, Ahadzadeh AS, Ong FS, Naghavi N
    Health Promot Perspect, 2020;10(3):220-229.
    PMID: 32802758 DOI: 10.34172/hpp.2020.35
    Background: Mammography screening tends to reduce mortality rate through early detection. One of the barriers to mammography screening is fear of negative appearance evaluation(FNAE). This study investigated the impact of internal health locus of control, breast cancer worries and age on the relationship between FNAE and attitude towards mammography. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey design was used. Samples were Iranian women, living in Iran, aged at least 30 years old, without any history of cancer, and had not performed mammography previously based on self-report. In total, 823 samples were collected through conducting an online survey from April to June 2016. The questionnaire consisted of several instruments including attitude toward breast cancer screening procedures scale, FNAEscale, the internal dimension of the multidimensional health locus of control, and two items to measure breast cancer worry. Using covariance-based structural equation modeling the model was tested. Results: The interaction of FNAE with internal health locus of control (β = -0.128, P<0.05,CI: -0.200, -0.056), breast cancer worry (β = 0.090, P<0.05, CI: -0.162, -0.017), and age (β =-0.095, P<0.05, CI = -0.163, -0.026) was significant. The three tested moderators dampened the positive relationship between FNAE and negative attitude towards mammography. Conclusion: More information about the screening procedure should be given to women to overcome their fear. The findings indicate the need for interventions seeking to shift women's health locus of control from external to internal. Women with low level of cancer worry need more attention.
  10. Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Yaghoobzadeh A, Yeoh KK, Goudarzian AH, Soleimani MA, et al.
    Int J Nurs Pract, 2017 Apr;23(2).
    PMID: 28058748 DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12513
    Nonpharmacological methods of pain relief such as acupressure are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Practitioners often claim that such methods are highly effective and less invasive than analgesic drugs, but available empirical evidence is largely inconclusive. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that, postacupressure intervention, the amount of pain experienced by sampled leukemia patients, who received acupressure in addition to standard care, will reduce substantially compared to patients who received only routine treatment. This controlled trial was undertaken with hospitalized leukemia patients between February and June 2015. Our primary sample consisted of 100 participants who were randomly allocated to 2 groups. One (intervention) group underwent 12 acupressure sessions in addition to standard treatment while the control group received no intervention apart from being given the standard treatment for leukemia. The visual analogue scale was used to measure the levels of pain experienced. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups across 12 interventions. However, each group reported significantly different pain level changes before and after each intervention, suggested that the acupressure method was effective in reducing pain in the short term. Nurses are able to apply this complementary therapy alongside other procedures to manage these patients' pain. It is recommended that further studies be conducted to better understand the specific conditions under which acupressure can provide effective pain relief.
  11. Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Goudarzian AH, Allen KA, Jamali S, Heydari Gorji MA
    J Relig Health, 2017 Dec;56(6):2109-2117.
    PMID: 28229351 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-017-0376-2
    In recent years, researchers have identified that coping strategies are an important contributor to an individual's life satisfaction and ability to manage stress. The positive relationship between religious copings, specifically, with physical and mental health has also been identified in some studies. Spirituality and religion have been discussed rigorously in research, but very few studies exist on religious coping. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between religious coping methods (i.e., positive and negative religious coping) and self-care behaviors in Iranian medical students. This study used a cross-sectional design of 335 randomly selected students from Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A data collection tool comprised of the standard questionnaire of religious coping methods and questionnaire of self-care behaviors assessment was utilized. Data were analyzed using a two-sample t test assuming equal variances. Adjusted linear regression was used to evaluate the independent association of religious copings with self-care. Adjusted linear regression model indicated an independent significant association between positive (b = 4.616, 95% CI 4.234-4.999) and negative (b = -3.726, 95% CI -4.311 to -3.141) religious coping with self-care behaviors. Findings showed a linear relationship between religious coping and self-care behaviors. Further research with larger sample sizes in diverse populations is recommended.
  12. Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Lehto RH, Boyle C, Yaghoobzadeh A, Kaveh O, et al.
    Jpn J Clin Oncol, 2017 Aug 01;47(8):713-719.
    PMID: 28505271 DOI: 10.1093/jjco/hyx065
    Objective: The surfacing of thoughts and depressive affect associated with the prospect of death are prevalent among patients with advanced cancer. Because death cognitions and associated negative affect occur along an adaptive-less adaptive continuum, it is essential that valid and reliable instruments are available to measure death depression. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Death Depression Scale among Iranian patients with advanced cancer.

    Methods: About 497 cancer patients completed a Persian version of the 21-item Death Depression Scale-Revised. The face, content and construct validity of the scale were ascertained. Reliability was also assessed using internal consistency, construct reliability and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).

    Results: Construct validity determined one factor with an eigenvalue greater than 1. The model had a good fit (χ2 (179, N = 248) = 520.345, P < 0.001; χ2/df = 2.907, CFI = 0.916, TLI = 0.902, IFI = 0.917, SRMR = 0.049 and RMSEA = 0.088 (90% confidence interval = 0.079-0.097)) with all factors loadings greater than 0.5 and statistically significant. The internal consistency, construct reliability and ICC were greater than 0.70. Convergent validity of the scale was demonstrated.

    Conclusions: Findings revealed that the Persian version of the Death Depression Scale-Revised is valid and reliable, and may be used to assess and evaluate death depression in Iranian patients with advanced cancer.

  13. Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Lehto RH, Allen KA, Goudarzian AH, Yaghoobzadeh A, et al.
    Iran J Psychiatry, 2017 Jul;12(3):172-181.
    PMID: 29062368
    Objective: Limited research has examined the psychometric properties of death depression scales in Persian populations with cardiac disease despite the need for valid assessment tools for evaluating depressive symptoms in patients with life-limiting chronic conditions. The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale - Revised (DDS-R) in Iranian patients who had recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method: This psychometric study was conducted with a convenience sample of 407 patients with AMI diagnosis who completed the Persian version of the DDS-R. The face, content, and construct validity of the scale were ascertained. Internal consistency, test-retest, and construct reliability (CR) were used to assess reliability of the Persian Version of DDS-R. Results: Based on maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and consideration of conceptual meaning, a 4-factor solution was identified, explaining 75.89% of the total variance. Goodness-of-fit indices (GFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Incremental Fit Index (IFI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) in the final DDS-R structure demonstrated the adequacy of the 4-domain structure. The internal consistency, construct reliability, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were greater than .70. Conclusion: The DDS-R was found to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for evaluating death depression symptoms in Iranian patients with AMI.
  14. Yaghoobzadeh A, Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Hosseinigolafshani SZ, Mohammadi F, Oveisi S, et al.
    Int J Aging Hum Dev, 2018 Jul;87(1):77-89.
    PMID: 28859489 DOI: 10.1177/0091415017727211
    Self-perception is found to be a central predictive factor in experiencing successful aging. The aim of this study was to explore the role of sex, socioeconomic status, and emotional support in elders' aging perception. A cross-sectional design was used with 300 older aged participants recruited from 23 clinics and health centers in Qazvin, Iran. Data were collected included questions to elicit demographic information and Barker's aging perception questionnaire. Exploratory multiple linear regression showed that the level of emotional support (β: -12.10; 95% CI: [-20.72, -3.48]), socioeconomic status (β: 2.84; 95% CI: [0.25, 5.43]), and women (β: -4.34; 95% CI: [-6.91, -1.77]) were associated with aging perception among elders. Educational level and marital status did not significantly contribute to the variance of AP. Findings revealed that aging perception was related to individual differences as well as social and emotional factors. Researchers, health-care professionals, and elders may benefit from thinking about old age as an inevitable life stage.
  15. Yaghoobzadeh A, Gorgulu O, Yee BL, Wibisono AH, Pahlevan Sharif S, Sharif Nia H, et al.
    J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2018 01 22;24(6):522-530.
    PMID: 29357723 DOI: 10.1177/1078390317753676
    BACKGROUND: Aging perception plays a central role in the experience of healthy aging by older people. Research identified that factors such as hope, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic status influence the perception of aging in older populations.

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to test a hypothetical model to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between hope, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic status with aging perception.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was used with 504 older aged participants who live in Qazvin, Iran. Data were collected using the Barker's Aging Perception Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Index-Z, and Herth Hope Index.

    RESULTS: The results of path analysis showed that hope was the most important factor affecting aging perception. Results drawn from correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive significant correlation ( r = .383, p < .001) between hope and aging perception. Further analysis found that hope had the strongest impact on aging perception compared with the other variables analyzed (e.g., life satisfaction and socioeconomic status).

    CONCLUSIONS: A model of aging perception in Iranian elders is presented. The findings suggested that hope had a significant and positive impact on aging perception. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  16. Rahmatpour P, Sharif Nia H, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Kaveh O, Pahlevan Sharif S, Taghipour B
    Int J Gen Med, 2020;13:515-522.
    PMID: 32884331 DOI: 10.2147/IJGM.S260579
    Background: Given the high incidence of coronavirus and the shortage of nurses in Iranian hospitals, nurses' intention to care for patients with COVID-19 is important. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the nurses' intention to care scale (NICS) by Iranian nurses who care for patients with COVID-19 in hospitals.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses (n= 400) at public and private Mazandaran hospitals. An online questionnaire was used that consisted of two parts: demographic variables and NICS. The scale was translated into Persian first and then validated using both construct and content validity.

    Results: The findings from an exploratory factor analysis yielded six factors that explained 53.12% of the total variance of the NICS. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model had a good fit and the inter-item correlation values of the factors indicated good internal consistency.

    Conclusion: The Persian version of NICS in Iranian nurses had six factors. The results of our study add insight for nurse administrators and educators to further develop strategies to increase nurses' intention by improving positive attitudes and reducing their negative beliefs.

  17. Nazari R, Pahlevan Sharif S, Allen KA, Sharif Nia H, Yee BL, Yaghoobzadeh A
    J Caring Sci, 2018 Dec;7(4):197-203.
    PMID: 30607360 DOI: 10.15171/jcs.2018.030
    Introduction:
    A consistent approach to pain assessment for patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) is a major difficulty for health practitioners due to some patients' inability, to express their pain verbally. This study aimed to assess pain behaviors (PBs) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients at different levels of consciousness.
    Methods:
    This study used a repeated-measure, within-subject design with 35 patients admitted to an ICU. The data were collected through observations of nociceptive and non-nociceptive procedures, which were recorded through a 47-item behavior-rating checklist. The analyses were performed by SPSS ver.13 software.
    Results:
    The most frequently observed PBs during nociceptive procedures were facial expression levator contractions (65.7%), sudden eye openings (34.3%), frowning (31.4%), lip changes (31.4%), clear movement of extremities (57.1%), neck stiffness (42.9%), sighing (31.4%), and moaning (31.4%). The number of PBs exhibited by participants during nociceptive procedures was significantly higher than those observed before and 15 minutes after the procedures. Also, the number of exhibited PBs in patients during nociceptive procedures was significantly greater than that of exhibited PBs during the non-nociceptive procedure. The results showed a significant difference between different levels of consciousness and also between the numbers of exhibited PBs in participants with different levels of traumatic brain injury severity.
    Conclusion:
    The present study showed that most of the behaviors that have been observed during painful stimulation in patients with traumatic brain injury included facial expressions, sudden eye opening, frowning, lip changes, clear movements of extremities, neck stiffness, and sighing or moaning.
  18. Sharif Nia H, Rezapour M, Allen KA, Pahlevan Sharif S, Jafari A, Torkmandi H, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 09 01;20(9):2803-2809.
    PMID: 31554380 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2803
    Objectives: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was specifically created to assess
    depression in cancer patients. However, to date, the CES-D has not been validated in Farsi. Therefore, this study aimed to
    assess the psychometric properties of the CES-D in Iranian cancer patients. Methods: During a three-month period
    (October to December, 2015), a total of 380 cancer patients completed a Farsi version of the CES-D. The construct
    validity of the scale was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha
    and McDonald Omega. All of the statistical procedure were run by SPSS 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results:
    The construct validity of the CES-D determined three factors (somatic affect, negative affect, and positive affect),
    which explained 65.60% of the total variance. The internal consistency was greater than 0.70. Conclusion: Findings
    revealed that the Farsi version of the CES-D has acceptable validity and reliability, which can be used to measure
    depression in Iranian cancer patients.
  19. Nikbakht Nasrabadi A, Pahlevan Sharif S, Allen KA, Naghavi N, Sharif Nia H, Salisu WJ, et al.
    Eur J Cancer Prev, 2021 Apr 23.
    PMID: 33899748 DOI: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000683
    While much research has focused on the direct impact of socioeconomic status on cancer patients, what is not clear is the impact of socioeconomic status on social support and the burden of care for caregivers. In this study, a cross-sectional method, using a convenience sampling approach, was adopted to collect the data of 191 caregivers of cancer patients who were referred to the oncology clinic and cancer institute of hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The participants completed a questionnaire on basic demographics, the short version of the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers, and Zimet Multidimensional Perceived Social Support. A maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation to assess the factor structure of the constructs and the measurement model was conducted. The two-factor model consisting of 22 items explained 65.116% of the variance. There was a significant negative relationship between social support and burden (b = -0.771, P < 0.001) and also between economic status and burden (b = -0.308, P < 0.01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between the interaction of social support and economic status and burden (b = 0.138, P < 0.05). More specifically, the negative relationship between social support and burden was statistically stronger for participants with weak economic status (b = -0.663, P < 0.001) than those with good economic status (b = -0.356, P < 0.01). Social support and an individual's economic status are essential determinants of caregiver burden. Further studies are recommended to better inform the precise support needed by caregivers to enhance their quality of life, and ultimately, that of the patients under their care.
  20. Sharif Nia H, Mohammadinezhad M, Allen KA, Boyle C, Pahlevan Sharif S, Rahmatpour P
    Palliat Support Care, 2021 May 07.
    PMID: 33958021 DOI: 10.1017/S1478951521000407
    OBJECTIVE: The spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) is a widely used clinical scale which should be evaluated for Iranian patients with cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SWBS in Iranian patients with cancer.

    METHOD: This cross-sectional, methodological study was conducted among Iranian patients with cancer (n = 400). The participants were recruited using convenience sampling. The content, construct, convergent and discriminant validity, and reliability of the Persian version of the SWBS were evaluated.

    RESULTS: A two-factor structure for the scale was indicated with the factors being: connecting with God and meaningless life that explained 54.18% of the total variance of the concept of spiritual well-being. The results demonstrated the model had a good fit. Cronbach's alpha, McDonald's omega, and the inter-item correlation values of the factors indicated good internal consistency of the scale.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: These results suggest that the Persian version of the SWBS is a reliable and valid measure to assess the spiritual well-being of patients with cancer through 16 items related to connecting with God and meaningless life.

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