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  1. Banavar SR, Chippagiri P, Pandurangappa R, Annavajjula S, Rajashekaraiah PB
    Anal Cell Pathol (Amst), 2016;2016:9084909.
    PMID: 27747147
    Background. Microscopes are omnipresent throughout the field of biological research. With microscopes one can see in detail what is going on at the cellular level in tissues. Though it is a ubiquitous tool, the limitation is that with high magnification there is a small field of view. It is often advantageous to see an entire sample at high magnification. Over the years technological advancements in optics have helped to provide solutions to this limitation of microscopes by creating the so-called dedicated "slide scanners" which can provide a "whole slide digital image." These scanners can provide seamless, large-field-of-view, high resolution image of entire tissue section. The only disadvantage of such complete slide imaging system is its outrageous cost, thereby hindering their practical use by most laboratories, especially in developing and low resource countries. Methods. In a quest for their substitute, we tried commonly used image editing software Adobe Photoshop along with a basic image capturing device attached to a trinocular microscope to create a digital pathology slide. Results. The seamless image created using Adobe Photoshop maintained its diagnostic quality. Conclusion. With time and effort photomicrographs obtained from a basic camera-microscope set up can be combined and merged in Adobe Photoshop to create a whole slide digital image of practically usable quality at a negligible cost.
  2. Lu CK, Yee MCS, Ravi SB, Pandurangappa R
    Int J Dent, 2017;2017:4265753.
    PMID: 29129975 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4265753
    Background and Objective: Evaluation of dental attrition is an easy and relatively accurate approach to estimating the age of an adult either ante- or postmortem for some specific population. Dental attrition represents a progressive physiological age change that can be measured using variety of indices to aid as an adjunct in forensic age estimation. Some of the previously proposed indices have their own practical limitations. This paper focuses on using modified Kim's criteria to score dental attrition to estimate the age of Chinese Malaysian adults and validate it.

    Methodology: Tooth wear was evaluated on 190 dental models of Chinese Malaysian adults (age range: 20-60 years) using modified Kim's index to custom-derive a population specific linear equation. The same equation was validated further on new 60 dental casts.

    Results and Conclusion: Regression analysis revealed good correlation between age and teeth wear and lower standard error of estimate. Test of regression on a test sample (n = 30 pairs, age range: 20-60 years) showed insignificant difference between predicted versus the actual age with statistically acceptable mean absolute difference. These data suggest that modified Kim's index can be used effectively in forensic age estimation.

  3. Banavar Ravi S, Nirupad S, Chippagiri P, Pandurangappa R
    Int J Dent, 2017;2017:4921614.
    PMID: 29201054 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4921614
    Background: Many plants or herbs exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. They have no side effects and presumably act against and modulate the factors that are crucial for microbial survival or their activity. Streptococcus mutans is a pioneer bacteria implicated in dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of garlic bulbs, pudina leaves, and mango and eucalyptus twig extracts on Streptococcus mutans by evaluating their zone of inhibition and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).

    Methods: Microbiological assay (well diffusion method) to determine zone of inhibition against pure forms of Streptococcus mutans was performed. The antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of mango twigs, eucalyptus twigs, pudina leaves, and garlic bulbs were studied. Test compounds were further evaluated for their MIC.

    Results: Extracts derived from mango and eucalyptus twigs showed significant antibacterial effects at test concentrations. Pudina and garlic extracts did not show any significant antibacterial effects at similar concentrations. Upon further evaluation of the 2 positive compounds for their MIC, mango twigs demonstrated more antimicrobial potential than eucalyptus twigs at a lower concentration.

    Conclusion: Our observations indicated that the mango twig extracts possess higher antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans than other compounds at specific test concentration.

  4. Kanneppady SS, Kanneppady SK, Chaubal T, Bapat R, Pandurangappa R, Oo AM, et al.
    Am J Med, 2019 04;132(4):e538-e539.
    PMID: 30503886 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.11.019
  5. Lim JTS, Kang WJ, Ajit Bapat R, Kanneppady SK, Pandurangappa R
    J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 2019 Dec;18(4):596-603.
    PMID: 31624443 DOI: 10.1007/s12663-018-1168-2
    Objectives: The risk of damaging the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) during surgery in the anterior mandible should not be overlooked. Hence, preoperative radiographic assessment is essential to avoid complications. This study was aimed to estimate the length of the MIC in the interforaminal safe zone, to analyse its course in relation to the lingual and the buccal cortical plates of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and to relate the above findings to age, gender, dental status and Malaysian races.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of 100 CBCT scans (n = 200) was performed on both sides of the mandible. Cross-sectional and panoramic images were reconstructed. The length of the MIC and the horizontal distances between the MIC and the buccal and the lingual cortical plates were measured at the three different points (starting, mid-, end points). Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA test were used to analyse the variation in the length and course of the MIC in gender, age, dental status and Malaysian races.

    Results: The mean length of the MIC was 11.31 ± 2.65 mm, with the Malays having the longest MIC, followed by the Chinese and the Indians (p 

  6. Bapat RA, Joshi CP, Bapat P, Chaubal TV, Pandurangappa R, Jnanendrappa N, et al.
    Drug Discov Today, 2019 01;24(1):85-98.
    PMID: 30176358 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2018.08.012
    Maintenance of oral health is a major challenge in dentistry. Different materials have been used to treat various dental diseases, although treatment success is limited by features of the biomaterials used. To overcome these limitations, materials incorporated with nanoparticles (NPs) can be used in dental applications including endodontics, periodontics, tissue engineering, oral surgery, and imaging. The unique properties of NPs, including their surface:volume ratio, antibacterial action, physical, mechanical, and biological characteristics, and unique particle size have rendered them effective vehicles for dental applications. In this review, we provide insights into the various applications of NPs in dentistry, including their benefits, limitations, properties, actions and future potential.
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