Recent bioinspired efforts of designing novel nanoenzyme-based electrocatalysts are driven by the urgency of making bioelectrofuels more affordable and efficient. Unlike natural enzymes, nanoenzyme-modified electrodes with large surface areas enclose numerous biomimicking active sites to facilitate enhanced microbial growth followed by increased reactant-to-bioelectrofuel conversion.
This study presents a preliminary assessment of biodiesel production from waste sources available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for energy generation and solution for waste disposal issues. A case study was developed under three different scenarios: (S1) KSA population only in 2017, (S2) KSA population and pilgrims in 2017, and (S3) KSA population and pilgrims by 2030 using the fat fraction of the municipal solid waste. It was estimated that S1, S2, and S3 scenarios could produce around 1.08, 1.10 and 1.41 million tons of biodiesel with the energy potential of 43423, 43949 and 56493 TJ respectively. Furthermore, annual savings of US $55.89, 56.56 and 72.71 million can be generated from landfill diversion of food waste and added to the country's economy. However, there are challenges in commercialization of waste to biodiesel facilities in KSA, including waste collection and separation, impurities, reactor design and biodiesel quality.
In an era of electronics, recovering the precious metal such as gold from ever increasing piles of electronic-wastes and metal-ion infested soil has become one of the prime concerns for researchers worldwide. Biological mining is an attractive, economical and non-hazardous to recover gold from the low-grade auriferous ore containing waste or soil. This review represents the recent major biological gold retrieval methods used to bio-mine gold. The biomining methods discussed in this review include, bioleaching, bio-oxidation, bio-precipitation, bio-flotation, bio-flocculation, bio-sorption, bio-reduction, bio-electrometallurgical technologies and bioaccumulation. The mechanism of gold biorecovery by microbes is explained in detail to explore its intracellular mechanistic, which help it withstand high concentrations of gold without causing any fatal consequences. Major challenges and future opportunities associated with each method and how they will dictate the fate of gold bio-metallurgy from metal wastes or metal infested soil bioremediation in the coming future are also discussed. With the help of concurrent advancements in high-throughput technologies, the gold bio-exploratory methods will speed up our ways to ensure maximum gold retrieval out of such low-grade ores containing sources, while keeping the gold mining clean and more sustainable.
The pharmaceuticals are emergent contaminants, which can create potential threats for human health and the environment. All the pharmaceutical contaminants are becoming enormous in the environment as conventional wastewater treatment cannot be effectively implemented due to toxic and intractable action of pharmaceuticals. For this reason, the existence of pharmaceutical contaminants has brought great awareness, causing significant concern on their transformation, occurrence, risk, and fate in the environments. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment process is effectively applied for the removal of contaminants, radionuclides, pesticides, and also harmful microorganisms. During the EC process, an electric current is employed directly, and both electrodes are dissoluted partially in the reactor under the special conditions. This electrode dissolution produces the increased concentration of cation, which is finally precipitated as hydroxides and oxides. Different anode materials usage like aluminum, stainless steel, iron, etc. are found more effective in EC operation for efficient removal of pharmaceutical contaminants. Due to the simple procedure and less costly material, EC method is extensively recognized for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment over further conventional treatment methods. The EC process has more usefulness to destabilize the pharmaceutical contaminants with the neutralization of charge and after that coagulating those contaminants to produce flocs. Thus, the review places particular emphasis on the application of EC process to remove pharmaceutical contaminants. First, the operational parameters influencing EC efficiency with the electroanalysis techniques are described. Second, in this review emerging challenges, current developments and techno-economic concerns of EC are highlighted. Finally, future recommendations and prospective on EC are envisioned.