This study describes a newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation. Excessive heat and the resulted perspiration within a prosthetic socket were the most common causes for reporting a reduced quality of life for prosthetic users. The product namely AirCirc means air circulation and it has been designed by approach of medical device design process in providing the amputees to maintain the skin temperature inside the socket. This device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable. In order to design the device, the small hole was made in prosthetic socket surface since it has a function as air circulation. Four types of proposed sockets namely P1, P2, P3 and P4 and one control socket were compared on a single patient to determine the best design of prosthetic socket. The result successfully reveals that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket. In addition to the eco-friendly material, the woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre and offer sustainable and biodegradable product yet provides unique and aesthetic surface as came from woven kenaf itself. The objective of this paper is to provide the airflow prosthetic socket design and optimize the use of natural fibre in prostheses field. Thus, with the use of the environmental friendly material, functionality device and heat removal capability make the device suitable for maintaining a comfortable and healthy environment for prosthesis. Implications of Rehabilitation Newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation Device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable Woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre for sustainable and biodegradable product Results show that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket.
A study was carried out to produce polyurethane (PU) as a wood laminating adhesive from liquefied kenaf core (LKC) polyols by reacting it with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). The LKC polyurethane (LKCPU) adhesive has a molecular weight (MW) of 2666, viscosity of 5370 mPa s, and solids content of 86.9%. The average shear strength of the rubberwood (RW) bonded with LKCPU adhesive was 2.9 MPa. Most of the sheared specimens experienced a total adhesive failure. The formation of air bubbles through the liberation of carbon dioxide was observed to reduce the adhesive penetration and bonding strength which was obviously seen on the sheared specimens. The percentage of catalyst used can be varied based on the usage and working time needed. Nonetheless, the physical properties of LKCPU produced in this work had shown good potential as edge-bonding adhesive.
Ethanolic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out on three types of hydrolysates produced from lignocelulosic biomass which are commonly found in Malaysia such as oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood. The effect of fermentation temperature and pH of hydrolysate was evaluated to optimize the fermentation efficiency which defined as maximum ethanol yield in minimum fermentation time. The fermentation process using different temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, 30 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius were performed on the prepared fermentation medium adjusted to pH 4, pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. Results showed that the fermentation time was significantly reduced with the increase of temperature but an adverse reduction in ethanol yield was observed using temperature of 40 degrees Celsius. As the pH of hydrolysate became more acidic, the ethanol yield increased. Optimum fermentation efficiency for ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using S. cerevisiae can be obtained using 33.2 degrees Celsius and pH 5.3.
The production of bioadsorbent from palm kernel shell (PKS) and coconut shell (CS) pretreated with 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). Iodine adsorption for both bioadsorbents was optimized by central composite design. Two parameters including the H3PO4 pretreatment temperature and carbonization temperature were determined as significant factors to improve the iodine adsorption of the bioadsorbent. Statistical analysis results divulge that both factors had significant effect on the iodine adsorption for the bioadsorbent. From the RSM analysis, it was suggested that using 80 and 79°C as H3PO4 pretreatment temperature and 714 and 715°C as carbonization temperature would enhance the iodine adsorption of the CS and PKS bioadsobent, respectively. These results indicated that H3PO4 is a good pretreatment for preparing PKS and CS prior to carbonization process to produce bioadsorbent with well-developed microporous and mesoporous volume. The effort to produce alternative high grade and inexpensive adsorbent derived from lignocellulosic biomass, particularly in the nut shell form was implied in this research.
The lower termite, Coptotermes curvignathus, is one of the most prominent plantation pests that feed upon, digest, and receive nourishment from exclusive lignocellulose diets. The objective of this study was to examine the utilization of sole carbon sources by isolated culturable aerobic bacteria among communities from the gut and foraging pathway of C. curvignathus. We study the bacteria occurrence from the gut of C. curvignathus and its surrounding feeding area by comparing the obtained phenotypic fingerprint with Biolog's extensive species library. A total of 24 bacteria have been identified mainly from the family Enterobacteriaceae from the identification of Biolog Gen III. Overall, the bacteria species in the termite gut differ from those of foraging pathway within a location, except Acintobacter baumannii, which was the only bacteria species found in both habitats. Although termites from a different study area do not have the same species of bacteria in the gut, they do have a bacterial community with similar role in degrading certain carbon sources. Sugars were preferential in termite gut isolates, while nitrogen carbon sources were preferential in foraging pathway isolates. The preferential use of specific carbon sources by these two bacterial communities reflects the role of bacteria for regulation of carbon metabolism in the termite gut and foraging pathway.
This study aimed to compare the performance of fabricated microbially induced precipitated calcium carbonate⁻ (MB⁻CaCO₃) based red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) bio-polymer film and commercial calcium carbonate⁻ (C⁻CaCO₃) based red seaweed bio-film with the conventional biodegradable mulch film. To the best of our knowledge, there has been limited research on the application of commercial CaCO₃ (C⁻CaCO₃) and microbially induced CaCO₃ (MB⁻CaCO₃) as fillers for the preparation of films from seaweed bio-polymer and comparison with biodegradable commercial plasticulture packaging. The results revealed that the mechanical, contact angle, and biodegradability properties of the polymer composite films incorporated with C⁻CaCO₃ and MB⁻CaCO₃ fillers were comparable or even superior than the conventional biodegradable mulch film. The seaweed polymer film incorporated with MB⁻CaCO₃ showed the highest contact angle of 100.94°, whereas conventional biodegradable mulch film showed a contact angle of 90.25°. The enhanced contact angle of MB⁻CaCO₃ resulted in high barrier properties, which is highly desired in the current scenario for plasticulture packaging application. The water vapor permeability of MB⁻CaCO₃ based seaweed films was low (2.05 ± 1.06 g·m/m²·s·Pa) when compared to conventional mulch film (2.68 ± 0.35 g·m/m²·s·Pa), which makes the fabricated film an ideal candidate for plasticulture application. The highest tensile strength (TS) was achieved by seaweed-based film filled with commercial CaCO₃ (84.92% higher than conventional mulch film). SEM images of the fractured surfaces of the fabricated films revealed the strong interaction between seaweed and fillers. Furthermore, composite films incorporated with MB⁻CaCO₃ promote brighter film, better water barrier, hydrophobicity, and biodegradability compared to C⁻CaCO₃ based seaweed polymer film and conventional mulch film. From this demonstrated work, it can be concluded that the fabricated MB⁻CaCO₃ based seaweed biopolymer film will be a promising candidate for plasticulture and agricultural application.
The effects of different fabric materials namely weave designs (plain and satin) and fabric counts (5 × 5 and 6 × 6) on the properties of laminated woven kenaf/carbon fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were evaluated. The hybrid composites were fabricated from two types of fabric, i.e., woven kenaf that was made from a yarn of 500tex and carbon fibre, by using vacuum infusion technique and epoxy resin as matrix. The panels were tested for tensile, flexural, and impact strengths. The results have revealed that plain fabric is more suitable than satin fabric for obtaining high tensile and impact strengths. Using a fabric count of 5 × 5 has generated composites that are significantly higher in flexural modulus as compared to 6 × 6 which may be attributed to their structure and design. The scanned electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the composites demonstrated that plain woven fabric composites had better adhesion properties than satin woven fabric composites, as indicated by the presence of notably lower amount of fibre pull out.
The current research trend for excellent miscibility in polymer mixing is the use of plasticizers. The use of most plasticizers usually has some negative effects on the mechanical properties of the resulting composite and can sometimes make it toxic, which makes such polymers unsuitable for biomedical applications. This research focuses on the improvement of the miscibility of polymer composites using two-step mixing with a rheomixer and a mix extruder. Polylactic acid (PLA), chitin, and starch were produced after two-step mixing, using a compression molding method with decreasing composition variation (between 8% to 2%) of chitin and increasing starch content. A dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to study the mechanical behavior of the composite at various temperatures. The tensile strength, yield, elastic modulus, impact, morphology, and compatibility properties were also studied. The DMA results showed a glass transition temperature range of 50 °C to 100 °C for all samples, with a distinct peak value for the loss modulus and factor. The single distinct peak value meant the polymer blend was compatible. The storage and loss modulus increased with an increase in blending, while the loss factor decreased, indicating excellent compatibility and miscibility of the composite components. The mechanical properties of the samples improved compared to neat PLA. Small voids and immiscibility were noticed in the scanning electron microscopy images, and this was corroborated by X-ray diffraction graphs that showed an improvement in the crystalline nature of PLA with starch. Bioabsorption and toxicity tests showed compatibility with the rat system, which is similar to the human system.
In the present study, agricultural biomass-palm kernel shell (PKS) and coconut shell (CS)-was used to produce high porosity bioadsorbent using two-stage continuous physical activation method with different gas carrier (air and N2) in each stage. The activation temperature was set constant at 600, 700, 800 or 900°C for both activation stages with the heating rate of 3°C min-1. Two parameters, the gas carrier and activation temperature, were determined as the significant factors on the adsorption properties of bioadsorbent. BET, SEM, FTIR, TGA, CHNS/O and ash content were used to elucidate the developed bioadsorbent prepared from PKS and CS and its capacity towards the adsorption of methylene blue and iodine. The novel process of two-stage continuous physical activation method was able to expose mesopores and micropores that were previously covered/clogged in nature, and simultaneously create new pores. The synthesized bioadsorbents showed that the surface area (PKS: 456.47 m2 g-1, CS: 479.17 m2 g-1), pore size (PKS: 0.63 nm, CS: 0.62 nm) and pore volume (PKS: 0.13 cm3 g-1, CS: 0.15 cm3 g-1) were significantly higher than that of non-treated bioadsorbent. The surface morphology of the raw materials and synthesized bioadsorbent were accessed by SEM. Furthermore, the novel process meets the recent industrial adsorbent requirements such as low activation temperature, high fixed carbon content, high yield, high adsorption properties and high surface area, which are the key factors for large-scale production of bioadsorbent and its usage.