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  1. Kanagasingam S, Hussaini HM, Soo I, Baharin S, Ashar A, Patel S
    Int Endod J, 2017 May;50(5):427-436.
    PMID: 27063356 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12651
    AIM: To compare the accuracy of film and digital periapical radiography (PR) in detecting apical periodontitis (AP) using histopathological findings as a reference standard.

    METHODOLOGY: Jaw sections containing 67 teeth (86 roots) were collected from nine fresh, unclaimed bodies that were due for cremation. Imaging was carried out to detect AP lesions using film and digital PR with a centred view (FP and DP groups); film and digital PR combining central with 10˚ mesially and distally angled (parallax) views (FPS and DPS groups). All specimens underwent histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of AP. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PR were analysed using rater mean (n = 5). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was carried out.

    RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.16, 0.37, 0.27 and 0.38 for FP, FPS, DP and DPS, respectively. Both FP and FPS had specificity and positive predictive values of 1.0, whilst DP and DPS had specificity and positive predictive values of 0.99. Negative predictive value was 0.36, 0.43, 0.39 and 0.44 for FP, FPS, DP and DPS, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) for the various imaging methods was 0.562 (FP), 0.629 (DP), 0.685 (FPS), 0.6880 (DPS).

    CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of single digital periapical radiography was significantly better than single film periapical radiography. The inclusion of two additional horizontal (parallax) angulated periapical radiograph images (mesial and distal horizontal angulations) significantly improved detection of apical periodontitis.

  2. Swami V, Pickering M, Barron D, Patel S
    Body Image, 2018 Sep;26:70-73.
    PMID: 29906631 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.06.002
    Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type. Results indicated that exposure to the film of a natural environment resulted in significantly elevated state body appreciation (d = 0.66). There was no significant change in state body appreciation following exposure to the film of the built environment (d = 0.14). These findings suggest that exposure to films depicting the natural environment may promote immediate, moderate-sized improvements in state body image.
  3. Jhajharia K, Shah HH, Paliwal A, Parikh V, Patel S
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jun;9(6):ZD28-30.
    PMID: 26266231 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12542.6108
    Tooth discolouration is a common problem and affects people of all ages. Apart from the conventional treatment modalities for the same, newer options are available today with better techniques and materials. The present case report describes a 17-year-old girl who had stained and pitted teeth, attributable to dental fluorosis and she desired aesthetic treatment for the same. The pros and cons of all treatment options were carefully weighed and a multistep treatment process involving ceramic veneers and direct bonding were planned. The execution of the planned treatment yielded a good aesthetic and functional outcome.
  4. Kanagasingam S, Lim CX, Yong CP, Mannocci F, Patel S
    Int Endod J, 2017 May;50(5):417-426.
    PMID: 27063209 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12650
    AIM: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of periapical radiography (PR) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting apical periodontitis (AP) using histopathological findings as a reference standard.

    METHODOLOGY: Jaw sections containing 67 teeth (86 roots) were collected from unclaimed bodies due for cremation. Imaging was carried out to detect AP by digital PR with a central view (DP group), digital PR combining central with 10˚ mesially and distally angled (parallax) views (DPS group) and CBCT scans. All specimens underwent histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of AP. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PR and CBCT were analysed using rater mean (n = 5). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out.

    RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.27, 0.38 and 0.89 for DP, DPS and CBCT scans, respectively. CBCT had specificity and positive predictive value of 1.0 whilst DP and DPS had specificity and positive predictive value of 0.99. The negative predictive value was 0.39, 0.44 and 0.81 for DP, DPS and CBCT scans, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) for the various imaging methods was 0.629 (DP), 0.688 (DPS), and 0.943 (CBCT).

    CONCLUSIONS: All imaging techniques had similar specificity and positive predictive values. Additional parallax views increased the diagnostic accuracy of PR. CBCT had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy in detecting AP compared to PR, using human histopathological findings as a reference standard.

  5. Khattak A, Ahmad B, Rauf A, Bawazeer S, Farooq U, Ali J, et al.
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2019 Feb;13(1):36-41.
    PMID: 30964035 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5063
    The development of reliable and green methods for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has many advantages in the field of nanotechnology. In this direction, the present work describes an eco-friendly and cost-effective protocol for the production of silver NPs (AgNPs) using an aqueous extract of Quercus semecarpifolia leaves. Different techniques were carried out for the characterisation of the synthesised AgNPs. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the highest absorbance peak at 430 nm. The particle size and structure were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. From TEM imaging, it was revealed that the formed particles were spherical with an average size of 20-50 nm. The crystalline nature of the NPs was determined by X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also evaluated by a temperature increment from 100 to 1000°C. Bio-inspired synthesis of AgNPs was performed for their pharmacological evaluation in relation to the activities of the crude methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts. Good cytotoxic activity was exhibited by the green-synthesised AgNPs (77%). Furthermore, the AgNPs were found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity at 300 μg/ml (82%). The AgNPs also exhibited good phytotoxic potential (75%).
  6. Patel S, Murphy D, Haralambieva E, Abdulla ZA, Wong KK, Chen H, et al.
    Biomark Insights, 2014;9:77-84.
    PMID: 25232277 DOI: 10.4137/BMI.S16553
    FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD) is a major adaptor protein involved in extrinsic apoptosis, embryogenesis, and lymphocyte homeostasis. Although abnormalities of the FADD/death receptor apoptotic pathways have been established in tumorigenesis, fewer studies have analyzed the expression and role of phosphorylated FADD (pFADD). Our identification of FADD as a lymphoma-associated autoantigen in T-cell lymphoma patients raises the possibility that pFADD, with its correlation with cell cycle, may possess role(s) in human T-cell lymphoma development. This immunohistochemical study investigated pFADD protein expression in a range of normal tissues and lymphomas, particularly T-cell lymphomas that require improved therapies. Whereas pFADD was expressed only in scattered normal T cells, it was detected at high levels in T-cell lymphomas (eg, 84% anaplastic large cell lymphoma and 65% peripheral T cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified). The increased expression of pFADD supports further study of its clinical relevance and role in lymphomagenesis, highlighting phosphorylation of FADD as a potential therapeutic target.
  7. Cook GM, Sousa C, Schaeffer J, Wiles K, Jareonsettasin P, Kalyanasundaram A, et al.
    Elife, 2020 May 28;9.
    PMID: 32452761 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.54612
    Contact repulsion of growing axons is an essential mechanism for spinal nerve patterning. In birds and mammals the embryonic somites generate a linear series of impenetrable barriers, forcing axon growth cones to traverse one half of each somite as they extend towards their body targets. This study shows that protein disulphide isomerase provides a key component of these barriers, mediating contact repulsion at the cell surface in chick half-somites. Repulsion is reduced both in vivo and in vitro by a range of methods that inhibit enzyme activity. The activity is critical in initiating a nitric oxide/S-nitrosylation-dependent signal transduction pathway that regulates the growth cone cytoskeleton. Rat forebrain grey matter extracts contain a similar activity, and the enzyme is expressed at the surface of cultured human astrocytic cells and rat cortical astrocytes. We suggest this system is co-opted in the brain to counteract and regulate aberrant nerve terminal growth.
  8. Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration, Fitzmaurice C, Abate D, Abbasi N, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2019 Sep 27.
    PMID: 31560378 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996
    Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

    Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

    Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

    Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

    Conclusions and Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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