Displaying all 4 publications

  1. Rafieerad AR, Ashra MR, Mahmoodian R, Bushroa AR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Dec 1;57:397-413.
    PMID: 26354281 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.058
    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
  2. Rafieerad AR, Bushroa AR, Amiri A, Kalaiselvam K, Vellasamy KM, Vadivelu J
    J Hazard Mater, 2018 10 15;360:132-140.
    PMID: 30099356 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.107
    Antibacterial ability is vital in biological approaches as well as functional biomaterials. Besides, cytocompatibility aspect of biologic media, tissue and organs is always concern for appropriate synthesis. From the past, metallic/oxide phases of silver (Ag) material in various macro, micro or nano configurations have been widely used for antibacterial targets. While, background of Ag toxicity within particle, film and composites is posing gradual ion release affected by molecular bounding. Recent researches conducted to control, optimize and neutralize Ag limitations finding the benefits of ideal (∼ 100%) mediation against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Whereas, non-degradable releases history is still a challenge and its longer accumulation may cause to disrupt biostructures and disease risk. Thus, facile development of large-area organic materials with switchable bacteria toxicity and normal cell compatibility function is interesting for concerned approaches. Here, smart positively-charged stable arginine amino acid incorporated mono layer graphene (Arg-EMGr) nanobiocomposite introduced as useful antibacterial and safe bactericidal agent competitive with Ag direct. The immunity characteristic versus Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) comparably assessed with graphene oxide (GO) and different concentrations GO-AgNPs morphology. As cell viability matter, 1,3,5,7-days vitro culture assay shown attachment proliferation and cytotoxicity due to short interaction.
  3. Rafieerad AR, Bushroa AR, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Fallahpour A, Vadivelu J, Musa SN, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2016 08;61:182-196.
    PMID: 26874249 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.01.028
    PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications.
  4. Rafieerad AR, Bushroa AR, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Kaboli SHA, Khanahmadi S, Amiri A, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 May;69:1-18.
    PMID: 28027481 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.11.019
    Recently, the robust optimization and prediction models have been highly noticed in district of surface engineering and coating techniques to obtain the highest possible output values through least trial and error experiments. Besides, due to necessity of finding the optimum value of dependent variables, the multi-objective metaheuristic models have been proposed to optimize various processes. Herein, oriented mixed oxide nanotubular arrays were grown on Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti67) implant using physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering (PVDMS) designed by Taguchi and following electrochemical anodization. The obtained adhesion strength and hardness of Ti67/Nb were modeled by particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict the outputs performance. According to developed models, multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) run aimed at finding PVDMS inputs to maximize current outputs simultaneously. The provided sputtering parameters were applied as validation experiment and resulted in higher adhesion strength and hardness of interfaced layer with Ti67. The as-deposited Nb layer before and after optimization were anodized in fluoride-base electrolyte for 300min. To crystallize the coatings, the anodically grown mixed oxide TiO2-Nb2O5-Al2O3 nanotubes were annealed at 440°C for 30min. From the FESEM observations, the optimized adhesive Nb interlayer led to further homogeneity of mixed nanotube arrays. As a result of this surface modification, the anodized sample after annealing showed the highest mechanical, tribological, corrosion resistant and in-vitro bioactivity properties, where a thick bone-like apatite layer was formed on the mixed oxide nanotubes surface within 10 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after applied MOPSO. The novel results of this study can be effective in optimizing a variety of the surface properties of the nanostructured implants.
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