Hemorrhage is the most common cause of death both in hospitals and on the battlefield. The need for an effective hemostatic agent remains, since all injuries are not amenable to tourniquet use. There are many topical hemostatic agents and dressings available to control severe bleeding. This article reviews the most commonly used inorganic hemostats, subcategorized as zeolite and clay-based hemostats. Their hemostatic functions as well as their structural properties that are believed to induce hemostasis are discussed. The most important findings from in vitro and in vivo experiments are also covered.
Cleft palate is a congenital malformation that generates a maxillofacial bone defect around the mouth area. The creation of performance scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in cleft palate is an issue that was proposed in this research. Because of its good biocompatibility, high stability, and non-toxicity, silk fibroin was selected as the scaffold of choice in this research. Silk fibroin scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying before immerging in a solution of collagen, decellularized pulp, and collagen/decellularized pulp. Then, the immersed scaffolds were freeze-dried. Structural organization in solution was observed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The molecular organization of the solutions and crystal structure of the scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The weight increase of the modified scaffolds and the pore size were determined. The morphology was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties were tested. Biofunctionalities were considered by seeding osteoblasts in silk fibroin scaffolds before analysis of the cell proliferation, viability, total protein assay, and histological analysis. The results demonstrated that dendrite structure of the fibrils occurred in those solutions. Molecular organization of the components in solution arranged themselves into an irregular structure. The fibrils were deposited in the pores of the modified silk fibroin scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed a beta-sheet structure. The morphological structure affected the mechanical properties of the silk fibroin scaffolds with and without modification. Following assessment of the biofunctionalities, the modified silk fibroin scaffolds could induce cell proliferation, viability, and total protein particularly in modified silk fibroin with collagen/decellularized pulp. Furthermore, the histological analysis indicated that the cells could adhere in modified silk fibroin scaffolds. Finally, it can be deduced that modified silk fibroin scaffolds with collagen/decellularized pulp had the performance for bone tissue engineering and a promise for cleft palate treatment.
β-wollastonite (β-CaSiO3) was synthesized from rice husk ash and calcium carbonate, and a study of the effects of the autoclaving and sintering steps is presented here. Autoclaving and sintering at 8h and 2h yielded the β-wollastonite phase in full, with improved crystallinity. Nucleation between rice husk ash and calcium oxide occurred around 135 °C, pressure 0.24 MPa, and growth proved to be more crystalline after the ripening period. For shorter processing times, and for both unsintered and unautoclaved samples, cristobalite and unstable tricalcium silicate phases were present. Crystallite size was increased by longer sintering times but reduced by longer autoclaving times. The β-wollastonite obtained had a random branch-like structure. In conclusion, the introduction of the autoclaving step successfully obtained β-wollastonite from a reaction between rice husk ash and calcium oxide.
Immunosensors based on gold nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (AuNPs/rGO)-modified screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were successfully synthesized using an electrochemical deposition method. The modified SPEs were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the morphology and composition of AuNPs and rGO. Both the FESEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the AuNPs were successfully anchored on the thin film of rGO deposited on the surface of the SPEs. Characterization with a ferri-ferrocyanide couple [Fe(CN)6(3-/4-)] showed that the electron transfer kinetic between the analyte and electrode was enhanced after the modification with the AuNPs/rGO composite on the electrode surface, in addition to increasing the effective surface area of the electrode. The modified SPE was immobilized with a sandwich type immunosensor to mimic the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) immunoassay. The modified SPE that was fortified with the sandwich type immunosensor exhibited double electrochemical responses in the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with linear ranges of 0.5-50 ng/mL and 250-2000 ng/mL and limits of detection of 0.28 ng/mL and 181.5 ng/mL, respectively.
In the current study, electrospinning technique was used to fabricate composite membranes by blending of a synthetic polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) and a natural polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), PHBV. Conductive membranes were prepared by dipping PLA/PHBV electrospun membranes into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (
The actual in vivo tissue scaffold offers a three-dimensional (3D) structural support along with a nano-textured surfaces consist of a fibrous network in order to deliver cell adhesion and signaling. A scaffold is required, until the tissue is entirely regenerated or restored, to act as a temporary ingrowth template for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This review depicts some of the most significant three dimensional structure materials used as scaffolds in various tissue engineering application fields currently being employed to mimic in vivo features. Accordingly, some of the researchers' attempts have envisioned utilizing graphene for the fabrication of porous and flexible 3D scaffolds. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate the topographical and topological optimization of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in order to improve scaffolds' mechanical performances.
This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed.
In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property.
Bones are nanocomposites consisting of a collagenous fibre network, embedded with calcium phosphates mainly hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystallites. As bones are subjected to continuous loading and unloading process every day, they often tend to become prone to fatigue and breakdown. Therefore, this review addresses the use of nanocomposites particularly polymers reinforced with nanoceramics that can be used as load bearing bone implants. Further, nanocomposite preparation and dispersion modification techniques have been highlighted along with thorough discussion on the influence that various nanofillers have on the physico-mechanical properties of nanocomposites in relation to that of natural bone properties. This review updates the nanocomposites that meet the physico-mechanical properties (strength and elasticity) as well as biocompatibility requirement of a load bearing bone implant and also attempts to highlight the gaps in the reported studies to address the fatigue and creep properties of the nanocomposites.
Novel alginate-fenugreek gum (FG) gel membrane coated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based matrix tablets were developed for intragastric quetiapine fumarate (QF) delivery by combining floating and swelling mechanisms. The effects of polymer blend ratios [HPMC K4M:HPMC E15] and citric acid contents on time taken for 50% drug release (t50%, min) and drug release at 8h (Q8h, %) were studied to optimize the core tablets by 3(2) factorial design. The optimized tablets (F-O) exhibited t50% of 247.67±3.51min and Q8h of 71.11±0.32% with minimum errors in prediction. The optimized tablets were coated with Ca(+2) ions crosslinked alginate-FG gel membrane by diffusion-controlled interfacial complexation technique. The biopolymeric-coated optimized matrices exhibited superior buoyancy, preferred swelling characteristics and slower drug release rate. The drug release profiles of the QF-loaded uncoated and coated optimized matrices were best fitted in Korsmeyer-Peppas model with anomalous diffusion driven mechanism. The uncoated and coated tablets containing QF were also characterized for drug-excipients compatibility, thermal behaviour and surface morphology by FTIR, DSC and SEM analyses, respectively. Thus, the newly developed alginate-FG gel membrane coated HPMC matrices are appropriate for intragastric delivery of QF over a prolonged period of time with greater therapeutic benefits.
Five species of white rot fungi were screened for their capability to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). Three modes of AgNP bioreduction were developed. Pycnoporus sanguineus is found as a potential candidate for the synthesis of AgNPs with a yield at 98.9%. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, FTIR, TEM, and SEM. Results showed that AgNP absorption band was located at a peak of 420 nm. Both the SEM and TEM confirmed that the formation of AgNPs were mainly spherical with average diameters of 52.8-103.3 nm. The signals of silver atoms' presence in the mycelium were observed by SEM-EDS spectrum.
The four heart valves represented in the mammalian hearts are responsible for maintaining unidirectional, non-hinder blood flow. The heart valve leaflets synchronically open and close approximately 4 million times a year and more than 3 billion times during the life. Valvular heart dysfunction is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. When one of the valves malfunctions, the medical choice is may be to replace the original valves with an artificial one. Currently, the mechanical and biological artificial valves are clinically used with some drawbacks. Tissue engineering heart valve concept represents a new technique to enhance the current model. In tissue engineering method, a three-dimensional scaffold is fabricated as the template for neo-tissue development. Appropriate cells are seeded to the matrix in vitro. Various approaches have been investigated either in scaffold biomaterials and fabrication techniques or cell source and cultivation methods. The available results of ongoing experiments indicate a promising future in this area (particularly in combination of bone marrow stem cells with synthetic scaffold), which can eliminate the need for lifelong anti-coagulation medication, durability and reoperation problems.
Polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan (CS)/graphene oxide (GO) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully developed via electrospinning process for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The SEM analysis of nanofibrous scaffolds with different contents of GO (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7wt.%) indicated that the minimum diameter of nanofibers was found to be 85nm for PEO/CS/GO 0.5% nanofibers. The π-π stacking interaction between DOX and GO with fine pores of nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited higher drug loading (98%) and controlled release of the DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO nanofibers. The results of DOX release from nanofibrous scaffolds at pH5.3 and 7.4 indicated strong pH dependence. The hydrogen bonding interaction between GO and DOX could be unstable under acidic conditions which resulted in faster drug release rate in pH5.3. The cell viability results indicated that DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO/DOX nanofibrous scaffold could be used as an alternative source of DOX compared with free DOX to avoid the side effects of free DOX. Thus, the prepared nanofibrous scaffold offers as a novel formulation for treatment of lung cancer.
The recent proposal of using Zn-based alloys for biodegradable implants was not supported with sufficient toxicity data. This work, for the first time, presents a thorough cytotoxicity evaluation of Zn-3Mg alloy for biodegradable bone implants. Normal human osteoblast cells were exposed to the alloy's extract and three main cell-material interaction parameters: cell health, functionality and inflammatory response, were evaluated. Results showed that at the concentration of 0.75mg/ml alloy extract, cell viability was reduced by ~50% through an induction of apoptosis at day 1; however, cells were able to recover at days 3 and 7. Cytoskeletal changes were observed but without any significant DNA damage. The downregulation of alkaline phosphatase protein levels did not significantly affect the mineralization process of the cells. Significant differences of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 inflammatory biomarkers were noticed, but not interleukin 1-beta, indicating that the cells underwent a healing process after exposure to the alloy. Detailed analysis on the cell-material interaction is further discussed in this paper.
Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H2PO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sintered at 1000°C for 2h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.
In this study, an electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on gold nanoparticles/ ethylenediamine/ multi-wall carbon-nanotubes modified gold electrode (AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/AuE) for determination of valrubicin in biological samples. Valrubicin was effectively accumulated on the surface of AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/AuE and produced a pair of redox peaks at around 0.662 and 0.578V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in citrate buffer (pH4.0). The electrochemical parameters including pH, buffer, ionic strength, scan rate and size of AuNPs have been optimized. There was a good linear correlation between cathodic peak current and concentration of valrubicin in the range of 0.5 to 80.0μmolL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.018μmolL(-1) in citrate buffer (pH4.0) and 0.1molL(-1) KCl. Finally, the constructed sensor was successfully applied for determination of valrubicin in human urine and blood serum. In further studies, the different sequences of single stranded DNA probes have been immobilized on the surface of AuNPs decorated on MWCNTs to study the interaction of oligonucleotides with valrubicin.
The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.