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  1. Nur Hanis Y, Raman P, Premala Devi S, Mohd Khalid KH
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):296-299.
    PMID: 31424036
    OBJECTIVE: The Ministry of Health introduced the cluster hospital project in Kuala Pilah district in 2016 to allow sharing of resources between the hospitals in the same vicinity. The aim of this study is to compare the demographic profile, prevalence of cataract blindness and low vision among patients who presented for cataract surgery before and after the programme.

    METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent cataract surgery in Kuala Pilah Cluster Hospitals between 2010 and 2017. A total of 2539 records of patients were reviewed. Patients were assigned into two groups: Group 1 (2010-2012)- before the programme (2010-2012) and Group 2 (2015-2017) after the introduction of the programme.

    RESULTS: There was a significant increase in number of cataract cases in the district hospital after the cluster initiative. The mean age of patients undergoing cataract surgery was similar in both groups. The common comorbidities were hypertension (Group 1=57.3%; Group 2=70.8%) and diabetes mellitus (Group 1=40.6%; Group 2=51.1%). In 2010-2012, most of the patients were one eye blind (34.4%), whereas in 2015-2017 majority of patients presented with vision better than 6/18 (43.5%). The proportion of patients with cataract blindness reduced from 6% in 2010-2012 to 4.3% in 2015-2017 (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant decrease in percentage of patients with cataract blindness and low vision after the introduction of Kuala Pilah Cluster Hospital Program. We believe that that cluster hospital system is effective in improving accessibility to eye care and therefore increases the cataract detection rate.

  2. Raman P, Suliman NB, Zahari M, Kook M, Ramli N
    Eye (Lond), 2018 07;32(7):1183-1189.
    PMID: 29491486 DOI: 10.1038/s41433-018-0057-8
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between baseline intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), and the 5-year visual field progression in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients.

    DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study.

    METHODS: Sixty-five NTG patients who were followed up for 5 years are included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-h IOP and BP monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and were followed up for over 5 years with reliable VF tests. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess VF progression. Univariable and multivariable analyses using Cox's proportional hazards model were used to identify the systemic and clinical risk factors that predict progression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare the time elapsed to confirmed VF progression in the presence or absence of each potential risk factor.

    RESULTS: At 5-year follow-up, 35.4% of the enrolled patients demonstrated visual field progression. There were statistically significant differences in the mean diastolic blood pressure (p p  43.7 mmHg (log rank = 0.018).

    CONCLUSION: Diastolic parameters of BP and OPP were significantly lower in the NTG patients who progressed after 5 years. Low nocturnal DOPP is an independent predictor of glaucomatous visual field progression in NTG patients.

  3. Yeap KC, Sivagurunathan PD, Raman P, Khalid KHM
    GMS Ophthalmol Cases, 2019;9:Doc25.
    PMID: 31355123 DOI: 10.3205/oc000114
    Purpose: To report a rare case of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) choroiditis masquerading as choroidal tumour, where the initial diagnosis was masked by keratitis. Casedescription: A 57-year-old heroin chaser with a pre-existing left eye blindness due to past blunt trauma presented with diffuse bacterial keratitis on the same side. Systemic examination revealed multiple non-tender cervical lymphadenopathies. B-scan ultrasonography showed a hyperechoic choroidal mass with surrounding exudative retinal detachment, resembling a choroidal tumour. However, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan findings were suggestive of inflammatory choroidal changes. Inflammatory markers were significantly raised and infective screening was positive for HIV and Hepatitis C. Tuberculosis workup was normal. In view of intractable pain, evisceration was done and his vitreous humour was sent for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was reported to be positive for Mycobacterium Fortuitum. Conclusion: NTM ocular infections are rare, challenging to diagnose, and potentially sight threatening. Early recognition and prompt treatment is life and vision saving.
  4. Raman P, Khy Ching Y, Sivagurunathan PD, Ramli N, Mohd Khalid KH
    J Glaucoma, 2019 08;28(8):685-690.
    PMID: 31033782 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001269
    PRECIS: This prospective cross-sectional study found that patients with cognitive impairment (CI) are more likely to produce unreliable visual field (VF) tests, especially with higher false-negative (FN) responses and consequent overestimation of mean deviation (MD).

    AIM: Aging-associated CI can impair the ability of individuals to perform a VF test and compromise the reliability of the results. We evaluated the association between neurocognitive impairment and VF reliability indices in glaucoma patients.

    METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Kuala Pilah, Malaysia, and included 113 eyes of 60 glaucoma patients with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Patients were monitored with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer using a 30-2 SITA, standard protocol, and CI was assessed using the clock drawing test (CDT). The relationships between the CDT score, MD, pattern standard deviation, Visual Field Index (VFI), fixation loss (FL), false-positive values, and FN values were analyzed using the ordinal regression model.

    RESULTS: Glaucoma patients older than 65 years had a higher prevalence of CI. There was a statistically significant correlation between CDT scores and glaucoma severity, FL, FN, and VFI values (rs=-0.20, P=0.03; rs=-0.20, P=0.04; rs=-0.28, P=0.003; rs=0.21, P=0.03, respectively). In a multivariate model adjusted for age and glaucoma severity, patients with lower FN were significantly less likely to have CI (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) and patients with higher MD were more likely to have CI (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.16); false positive, FL, pattern standard deviation, and VFI showed no significant correlation.

    CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline is associated with reduced VF reliability, especially with higher FN rate and overestimated MD. Screening and monitoring of CI may be important in the assessment of VF progression in glaucoma patients.

  5. Raman P, Suliman NB, Zahari M, Mohamad NF, Kook MS, Ramli N
    J Glaucoma, 2019 11;28(11):952-957.
    PMID: 31688446 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001359
    PRECIS: This 5-year follow-up study on normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients demonstrated that those with baseline central visual field (VF) defect progress at a more increased rate compared with those with peripheral field defect.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, including 24-hour ocular perfusion pressure and risk of progression in patients with baseline central VF defect, as compared with those with peripheral VF defect in NTG.

    DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal study.

    METHODS: A total of 65 NTG patients who completed 5 years of follow-up were included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-hour intraocular pressure and blood pressure monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and had ≥5 reliable VF tests during the 5-year follow-up. Patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of VF defect locations at baseline, the central 10 degrees, and the peripheral 10- to 24-degree area. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess global VF progression over 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare the elapsed time of confirmed VF progression in the two groups. Hazard ratios for the association between clinical risk factors and VF progression were obtained by using Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients with baseline central and peripheral VF defects in terms of demography, clinical, ocular and systemic hemodynamic factors. Eyes with baseline defects involving the central fields progressed faster (difference: βcentral=-0.78 dB/y, 95% confidence interval=-0.22 to -1.33, P=0.007) and have 3.56 times higher hazard of progressing (95% confidence interval=1.17-10.82, P=0.025) than those with only peripheral defects.

    CONCLUSION: NTG patients with baseline central VF involvement are at increased risk of progression compared with those with peripheral VF defect.

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