Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

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  1. Suhaila O, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):506-17.
    PMID: 23770869 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: This study focuses on sexual harassment, a form of psycological hazard that female registered nurses face throughout their day to day routine. The objective of this study is to find the prevalence of sexual harassment among female registered nurses working in government hospitals in Melaka, Malaysia and factors affecting them.

    METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted on 455 female registered nurses who have worked more than one year in the present 3 government hospitals in Melaka, Malaysia. A validated and pre tested questionnaires were given for the respondents to answer. Before respondents answer the questionaires, they are required to read the definition and the forms of sexual harassment provided. This is to help them to understand the correct definition and forms of sexual harassment that they could have experienced. The researcher is available during the distribution of the questionnaires and the respondents are free to ask the researcher anything that they do not understand about it.

    RESULTS: The results of this study show that the prevalence of sexual harassment among these nurses was 51.2% with the past one year incidence recorded at 22.8%. The most common forms of sexual harassment were verbal (46.6% ), visual (24.8% ), psycological (20.9%), physical (20.7%) and non -verbal (16.7% ). The study showed that 74.7% of the victims suffered from psychological effects brought upon by their encounter with various types of sexual harrasement at work. The study also found that the victims' self-perception of their physicality was a contributing factor to the prevalance of this situation. Those who were pretty, with attractive body figure, a friendly character and easy going had a higher prevalence of sexual harassment in the workplace. Meanwhile, those who were strict, and those who had a fierce character were not prone to sexual harassment.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sexual harassment among registered nurses in the workplace found in this study was high and self-perception profile of the victims of sexual harassment was the main contributing factor to the problem. Sexual harassment in the workplace should not be taken lightly because the resulting effects was not only felt by the victims, but also by their family members, colleagues and patients under their care. Hence, steps should be taken by the hospital managements to manage and prevent this problem from occuring again in the future.
  2. Rafiza S, Rampal KG
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2012 Feb;16(2):163-8.
    PMID: 22236915 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.11.0364
    BACKGROUND: Serial testing for tuberculosis (TB) exposure has been advocated among health care workers (HCWs) at risk of nosocomial infection.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and factors associated with TB infection among selected HCWs in Malaysia and to determine interferon-gamma response in serial testing.
    DESIGN: A cohort of 769 HCWs were retested after 1 year using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube. Incidence of TB infection was determined among HCWs who previously tested negative. Conversion and reversion rates using several definitions were explored.
    RESULTS: Incidence of TB infection was 9.9 per 100 workers per year (95%CI 7.9-12.3). Working in the Emergency Department (ED; RR 2.18, 95%CI 1.07-4.43) was significantly associated with risk of TB infection. Reversion and conversion occurred frequently, with 46.7% reversion among HCWs with baseline interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels of 0.35-0.70 international units (IU)/ml, and 23.8% conversion among HCWs with baseline IFN-γ levels of 0.20-0.34 IU/ml.
    CONCLUSIONS: TB infection control measures need to be strengthened, particularly in the ED, as the incidence of TB was high. Conversion and reversion rates in serial testing were high, and further studies are needed to facilitate its interpretation.
  3. Noorhassim I, Rampal KG
    Am J Otolaryngol, 1998 8 6;19(4):240-3.
    PMID: 9692632
    PURPOSE: To determine the combined effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pure tone audiometry test was conducted on 263 residents of a rural village who were not exposed to noise. The pack-years of smoking were computed from the subjects' smoking history. The association between pack-years and hearing impairment was assessed. The combined effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment was determined based on prevalence rate ratio.

    RESULTS: There was a statistically significant trend in the number of pack-years of smoking and age as risk factors for hearing impairment. The prevalence rates of hearing impairment for nonsmokers aged 40 years and younger, smokers aged 40 years and younger, nonsmokers older than 40 years of age, and smokers older than 40 years of age were 6.9%, 11.9%, 29.7%, and 51.3%, respectively. The prevalence rate ratio for nonsmokers aged 40 years and younger, smokers aged 40 years and younger, nonsmokers older than 40 years of age, and smokers older than 40 years of age (nonsmokers aged 40 years and younger as a reference group) was 1, 1.7, 4.3, and 7.5, respectively. The prevalence rate ratios showed a multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment.

    CONCLUSION: Age and smoking are risk factors for hearing impairment. It is clear that smoking and age have multiplicative adverse effects on hearing impairment.

  4. Noor Hassim I, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):78-85.
    PMID: 8057996
    A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of hearing loss and hearing impairment was conducted on 286 male subjects from a rural area. The sample was chosen by using a simple random sampling method. Prevalence of symptoms of tinnitus, ear disease, ear drum perforation and infection of external auditory meatus was 19.0 per cent, 6.7 per cent, 3.5 per cent and 0.4 per cent respectively. Air conduction audiometry tests showed the prevalences of hearing impairment of the left, right and both ears (aged 15-30 years) were 5.9%, 8.8% and 0% respectively. The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age. The higher frequencies (> 4KHz) appeared to be more affected than the lower frequencies.
  5. Osman A, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Mar;44(1):69-74.
    PMID: 2533959
    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of locomotor disability in a Malay Community in Tanjung Karang, Kuala Selangor in 1984. The causes of these disabilities, the mobility and occupational handicaps they caused and the types of treatment received were determined. Fifty percent of the households in this area were selected by stratified random sampling and all persons above seven years of age were included in the sample. The prevalence of locomotor disability was 3.9%. The prevalence among males was 5.2% and among females 2.6%. The prevalence increased with age, being as low as 0.6% in the 7-14 year age group and as high as 20.5% in the above 55 year age group. The disabilities resulted mainly from trauma (49%) and musculoskeletal and neurological problems (46.9%). Ninety percent (44 cases) had difficulty only in performance of daily activity and 20 cases (40.8%) had no mobility handicap whatsoever. Forty two (85.7%) of the 49 cases had received treatment.
  6. Rampal KG, Mohd Nizam J
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2006 Nov;46(2):131-5.
    PMID: 16899331
    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.
  7. Nasir MH, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):81-6.
    PMID: 22582554 MyJurnal
    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common and important source of disability among the workers and often caused by occupational noise exposure. Aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and contributing factors of hearing loss among airport workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an airport in Malaysia. This study used stratified sampling method that involved 358 workers who were working in 3 different units between November 2008 and March 2009. Data for this study were collected by using questionnaires eliciting sociodemographic, occupational exposure history (previous and present), life-style including smoking habits and health-related data. Otoscopic and pure-tone audiometric tests were conducted for hearing assessment. Noise exposure status was categorize by using a noise logging dosimeter to obtain 8-hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0.1 and EpiInfo 6.04. The prevalence of hearing loss was 33.5%. Age >40 years old (aOR 4.3, 95%CI 2.2-8.3) is the main risk factors for hearing loss followed by duration of noise exposure >5 years (aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.4-4.7), smoking (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.4), duration of service >5 years (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-3.9), exposure to explosion (aOR 6.1, 95%CI 1.3-29.8), exposure to vibration (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.1-4.3) and working in engineering unit (aOR 5.9, 95%CI 1.1-30.9). The prevalence rate ratio of hearing loss for nonsmokers aged 40 years old and younger, smokers aged 40 years old and younger, non-smokers older than 40 years old and smokers older than 40 years old was 1.0, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.6 respectively. This result contributes towards better understanding of risk factors for hearing loss, which is relatively common among Malaysian workers.
  8. Chee HL, Rampal KG
    Occup Environ Med, 2003 Apr;60(4):262-70.
    PMID: 12660374
    To determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers.
  9. Chee HL, Rampal KG
    Int J Occup Environ Health, 2004 Jan-Mar;10(1):63-71.
    PMID: 15070027 DOI: 10.1179/oeh.2004.10.1.63
    A cross-sectional study to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems and work-related risk factors was conducted among 906 women semiconductor workers. Highest prevalences were pain in the lower limbs, neck/shoulders, and upper back, and highest exposures were prolonged (> or = four hours per workshift) hand/wrist movement, standing, and lifting with hands. After logistic regression, lower-limb pain was significantly associated with standing, neck/shoulder pain with sitting and lifting, upper-back pain with climbing steps, low back pain with hand/wrist movement, and hand/wrist pain with lifting. Neck/shoulder pain was significantly higher for workers with shorter working durations, while lower-limb pain was significantly higher for workers with longer working durations. End-of-line assembly workers had significantly higher odds ratios for pain at all sites, while middle-of-line workers had higher odds ratios for pain in neck/shoulders and upper back, and wafer-fabrication workers had higher odds ratios for pain in low back and lower limbs.
  10. Chee HL, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):387-98.
    PMID: 14750379
    A study conducted between 1998-2001 on the semiconductor industry in Penang and Selangor found that irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea and stress were identified as the three leading health problems by women workers from a checklist of 16 health problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, including age, working duration in current factory, and marital status, in a multiple logistic regression model, wafer polishing workers were found to experience significantly higher odds of experiencing irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea was found to be significantly associated with chemical usage and poor ventilation, while stress was found to be related to poor ventilation, noise and low temperatures.
  11. Rafiza S, Rampal KG, Tahir A
    BMC Infect Dis, 2011;11:19.
    PMID: 21244645 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-19
    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin skin test was poor.
  12. Al-Dubai SA, Rampal KG
    J Occup Health, 2010;52(1):58-65.
    PMID: 19907108
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the level and factors contributing to burnout among doctors in Sana'a City, Yemen and to determine the relationship between burnout and psychological morbidity.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 563 working doctors in the four main hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) was used as a measure of psychological morbidity and the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Sources of job stress were determined using a 37-item scale questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information about socio-demographic and work characteristics.

    RESULTS: On the MBI, 356 doctors showed high emotional exhaustion (63.2%), 109 showed high depersonalization (19.4%) and 186 showed low personal accomplishment (33.0%). Sixty six doctors (11.7%) were identified as experiencing a high degree of burnout (high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low personal accomplishment). The prevalence of high degree of burnout was significantly higher in those with duration of work or=40 h/wk (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.25-3.62) and in those who had psychological morbidity (OR=5.3, 95% CI 2.22-12.39). Thirteen out of 37 sources of stress were significantly associated with high degree of burnout. In multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of high burnout were: dealing with patient's psychosocial problems, feeling of isolation, disturbance of home/family life by work, not chewing khat, long working hours and psychological morbidity.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of high degree of burnout as well as emotional exhaustion in Yemeni doctors was higher than those reported internationally and was associated with psychological morbidity and many important sources of job stress.
  13. Rampal KG, Aw TC, Jefferelli SB
    Occup Med, 2002 Jul-Sep;17(3):409-25, iv.
    PMID: 12028951
    This article provides a detailed examination of Malaysian occupational health agencies and their roles in formulating and enforcing standards, promoting occupational health and safety (OSH), and providing advisory services. Available OSH training is described, and the need for policies and personnel in various industries is outlined. Further, the authors discuss how international models and collaboration have influenced Malaysian OSH, and how some successes can be repeated and failures remedied.
  14. Noorhassim I, Rampal KG, Hashim JH
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Sep;50(3):263-7.
    PMID: 8926906
    A cross sectional study was conducted among 1007 children aged 1-2 years, from padi farming area. The percentage of male children was 51.4%. The prevalence of at least one of the chronic respiratory symptoms was 12.81%, and the prevalence of chronic cough, chronic sputum, wheezing and bronchial asthma as diagnosed by doctors were 9.33%, 3.87% 5.36% and 3.38% respectively. The overall prevalence of bronchial asthma was 6.26%. The prevalence of asthma was highest among children aged 11-12 years (8.9%) and higher among males (6.95%). No significant relationship was found between the prevalence of either chronic respiratory disease symptoms of bronchial asthma, and selected environmental factors, namely exposure to cigarette smoke, use of mosquito coil and wood stove. However there was a significant relationship between prevalence of asthma in children and history of asthma among parents and grandparents.
    Study site: Two villages in Tg. Karang (Kg. Sawah Sempadan and Kg Sri Tiram Jaya), Selangor, Malaysia
  15. Ali O, Rampal KG, Lubis SH
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Sep;39(3):234-8.
    PMID: 6544926
    A study was carried out to study lite prevalence of hypertension amongst rural Malays living in two villages in Kuala Selangor district. Simple random sampling of households was carried out and all members 15 years and above were examined. Out of 359 persons examined, 92 (25.6%) had hypertension. A significant increase in prevalence was observed with increasing age and in smokers. Prevalence rates did not differ significantly in the two sexes and with income. Only 38 of the hypertensives were known cases. It was found that 78. 7% of them had been detected within less than five years and 81.6% had undergone medical treatment. It is proposed that preventive programmes in hypertension be introduced in rural health services and a national prevalence survey be conducted.
  16. Chee HL, Rampal KG, Chandrasakaran A
    Ind Health, 2004 Jul;42(3):373-81.
    PMID: 15295910
    A cross-sectional survey of semiconductor factories was conducted to identify the ergonomic risk factors in the work processes, the prevalence of body pain among workers, and the relationship between body pain and work processes. A total of 906 women semiconductor workers took part in the study. In wafer preparation and polishing, a combination of lifting weights and prolonged standing might have led to high pain prevalences in the low back (35.0% wafer preparation, 41.7% wafer polishing) and lower limbs (90.0% wafer preparation, 66.7% wafer polishing). Semiconductor front of line workers, who mostly walked around to operate machines in clean rooms, had the lowest prevalences of body pain. Semiconductor assembly middle of line workers, especially the molding workers, who did frequent lifting, had high pain prevalences in the neck/shoulders (54.8%) and upper back (43.5 %). In the semiconductor assembly end of line work section, chip inspection workers who were exposed to prolonged sitting without back support had high prevalences of neck/shoulder (62.2%) and upper back pain (50.0%), while chip testing workers who had to climb steps to load units had a high prevalence of lower limb pain (68.0%). Workers in the assembly of electronic components, carrying out repetitive tasks with hands and fingers, and standing in awkward postures had high pain prevalences in the neck/shoulders (61.5%), arms (38.5%), and hands/wrists (30.8%).
  17. Musa R, Kyi W, Rampal KG
    Malays J Med Sci, 2000 Jul;7(2):13-7.
    PMID: 22977385 MyJurnal
    A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate the extent of occupational health problems focusing on some aspects of musculoskeletal symptoms among batik workers in Kelantan, Malaysia. The workers selected must have been in that industry for at least one year. Using cluster sampling, 202 workers were selected from 21 factories. More than half (60.2%) of the workers had been troubled with musculoskeletal symptoms at work. The most common symptoms were pain over the shoulders (41.0%), lower back (34.4%) and ankle (34.4%). Duration of employment, younger age group, prolonged standing and awkward working task were among contributing factors. It is therefore necessary to improve on both ergonomic and psychosocial environments of batik workers in order to prevent these musculoskeletal symptoms.
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