Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys.
Titanium-ceramic composites are potential implant material candidates because of their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This review focused on the latest advancement in processing of titanium-ceramic materials. Previously, titanium-ceramic incorporated using different coating techniques, i.e., plasma spraying and electrophoretic depositions, to enhance the biocompatibility of the implants. A major drawback in these coating methods is the growth of tissue at only the surface of the composite and might peel off over time. Recently, metal-ceramic composite was introduced via powder metallurgy method such as powder injection moulding. A porous structure can be obtained via powder metallurgy. Producing a porous titanium-ceramic structure would improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and tissue growth within the structure. Hence, further research needed to be done by considering the potential of powder injection moulding method which offer lower costs and more complex shapes for future implant.
Targeting the small intestine employing nanotechnology has proved to be a more effective way for site-specific drug delivery. The drug targeting to the small intestine can be achieved via nanoparticles for its optimum bioavailability within the systemic circulation. The small intestine is a remarkable candidate for localized drug delivery. The intestine has its unique properties. It has a less harsh environment than the stomach, provides comparatively more retention time, and possesses a greater surface area than other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. This review focuses on elaborating the intestinal barriers and approaches to overcome these barriers for internalizing nanoparticles and adopting different cellular trafficking pathways. We have discussed various factors that contribute to nanocarriers' cellular uptake, including their surface chemistry, surface morphology, and functionalization of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the fate of nanoparticles after their uptake at cellular and subcellular levels is also briefly explained. Finally, we have delineated the strategies that are adopted to determine the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles.
The aim of present research aims to fabricate a system of enteric coating of hydrogel beads with pH-sensitive polymer, which shows solubility at pH > 7, and explore their potential to target the colon for drug delivery. Hydrogel beads were fabricated through the extrusion-dripping technique followed by ion gelation crosslinking. Moreover, freeze-thaw cycle was implemented for crosslinking of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Ca-alginate blend beads. The oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method was adopted for the Eudragit coating of hydrogel beads using different coat: core ratios (4:1 or 8:1). Coated and uncoated hydrogel beads were evaluated by in vitro physicochemical properties, swelling and drug release behaviours, and in vivo pharmacokinetics, swelling, and toxicity evaluation. Diclofenac sodium was loaded as an experimental drug. Drug entrapment efficiency for the PVA/Ca-alginate beads was calculated as 98%, and for Ca-alginate beads, it came out to a maximum of 74%. Drug release study at various pH suggested that, unlike uncoated hydrogel beads, the coated beads delay the release of diclofenac sodium in low pH of the gastric and intestinal environment, thus targeting the colon for the drug release. It was concluded that Eudragit S-100-coated hydrogel beads could serve as a more promising and reliable way to target the colon for drug delivery.Graphical abstract.