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  1. Nesaretnam K, Gomez PA, Selvaduray KR, Razak GA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007;16(3):498-504.
    PMID: 17704032
    Data on dietary exposure to vitamin E by plasma or adipose tissue concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) in observational studies have failed to provide consistent support for the idea that alpha-T provides women with any protection from breast cancer. In contrast, studies indicate that alpha, gamma, and delta-tocotrienols but not alpha-T have potent anti-proliferative effects in human breast cancer cells. Our aim was to investigate whether there was a difference in tocopherol and tocotrienol concentrations in malignant and benign adipose tissue, in a Malaysian population consuming predominantly a palm oil diet. The study was undertaken using fatty acid levels in breast adipose tissue as a biomarker of qualitative dietary intake of fatty acids. The major fatty acids in breast adipose tissue of patients (benign and malignant) were oleic acid (45-46%), palmitic (28-29%) and linoleic (11-12%). No differences were evident in the fatty acid composition of the two groups. There was a significant difference (p=0.006) in the total tocotrienol levels between malignant (13.7 +/- 6.0 microg/g) and benign (20+/-6.0 microg/g) adipose tissue samples. However, no significant differences were seen in the total tocopherol levels (p=0.42) in the two groups. The study reveals that dietary intake influences adipose tissue fatty acid levels and that adipose tissue is a dynamic reservoir of fat soluble nutrients. The higher adipose tissue concentrations of tocotrienols in benign patients provide support for the idea that tocotrienols may provide protection against breast cancer.
  2. Loganathan R, Vethakkan SR, Radhakrishnan AK, Razak GA, Kim-Tiu T
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2019 04;73(4):609-616.
    PMID: 29946115 DOI: 10.1038/s41430-018-0236-5
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The consumption of antioxidant-rich cooking oil such as red palm olein may be cardioprotective from the perspective of subclinical inflammation and endothelial function.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a crossover design, we conducted a randomised controlled trial in 53 free-living high-risk abdominally overweight subjects, comparing the effects of incorporating red palm olein (with palm olein as control) in a supervised isocaloric 2100 kcal diet of 30% en fat, two-thirds (45 g/day) of which were derived from the test oil for a period of 6 weeks each.

    RESULTS: We did not observe a significant change in interleukin-6 (IL-6), in parallel with other pro-inflammatory (tumour necrosis factor-β, interleukin-1β, IL-1β, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP) and endothelial function (soluble intercellular adhesion molecules, sICAM, soluble intravascular adhesion molecules, sVCAM) parameters. Interestingly, we observed a significant reduction in oxidised LDL levels (P 

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