Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

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  1. Chandyo RK, Henjum S, Ulak M, Thorne-Lyman AL, Ulvik RJ, Shrestha PS, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2016 Apr;70(4):456-62.
    PMID: 26626049 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.199
    INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal.
    SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother-infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein.
    RESULTS: The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2-6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) <10.8 g/dl) and 72% among infants 7-12-month-old (Hb <11.3 g/dl). Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin <20 or <12 μg/l, affected 9 and 26% of infants of these same age groups. Twenty percent of mothers had anemia (Hb <12.3 g/dl), but only one-fifth was explained by depletion of iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants.
  2. Filippou A, Teng KT, Berry SE, Sanders TA
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2014 Sep;68(9):1036-41.
    PMID: 25052227 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.141
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20-50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose.

    RESULTS: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0-2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

  3. Tsiountsioura M, Wong JE, Upton J, McIntyre K, Dimakou D, Buchanan E, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2014 Jun;68(6):700-6.
    PMID: 24424079 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.286
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In the era of modern multidisciplinary clinical management, very little is known about the prevalence and presentation of malnutrition in children with gastrointestinal disorders (GastroD) particularly employing composite, global measures of nutritional status.
    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Anthropometry, body composition, dietary intake, eating habits and grip strength were assessed with bedside methods in 168 patients from outpatient gastroenterology clinics (n, median (IQR) years; Crohn's disease (CD): n=53, 14.2 (11.6:15.4); ulcerative colitis (UC): n=27, 12.2 (10.7:14.2); coeliac disease: n=31, 9.3 (7.5:13.6); other GastroD: n=57, 9.8 (7.2:13.8)) and compared with 62 contemporary healthy controls (n, median (IQR): 9.8 (6.9:13.8)) and the results of the recent UK, National Diet and Nutritional Survey (NDNS).
    RESULTS: Children with CD had lower BMI z-scores than controls (median (IQR): -0.3 (-0.9:0.4) vs 0.3 (-0.6:1.4); P=0.02) but only 2% were classified as thin (BMI z-score
  4. Nazeminezhad R, Tajfard M, Latiff LA, Mouhebati M, Esmaeily H, Ferns GA, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2014 Jan;68(1):109-13.
    PMID: 24219895 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.205
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in individuals with and without angiographically defined coronary artery disease.
  5. Liu A, Byrne NM, Ma G, Nasreddine L, Trinidad TP, Kijboonchoo K, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Dec;65(12):1321-7.
    PMID: 21731041 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.122
    To develop and cross-validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equations of total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM) for Asian pre-pubertal children from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.
  6. Mahalingam D, Radhakrishnan AK, Amom Z, Ibrahim N, Nesaretnam K
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Jan;65(1):63-9.
    PMID: 20859299 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.184
    Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that has been shown to induce favorable effects on animal and human immune systems. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on immune response following tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine challenge in healthy female volunteers.
  7. Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Rockell JE, Venn BJ, Lambert A, Todd J, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2008 Mar;62(3):373-8.
    PMID: 17342165
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the vitamin D status of women living in two Asian cities,--Jakarta (6 degrees S) and Kuala-Lumpur (2 degrees N), to examine the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and to determine a threshold for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D above which there is no further suppression of PTH. Also, to determine whether dietary calcium intake influences the relationship between PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Jakarta, Indonesia and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 504 non-pregnant women 18-40 years.

    MAIN MEASURES: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH.

    RESULTS: The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 48 nmol/l. Less than 1% of women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency (<17.5 nmol/l); whereas, over 60% of women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicative of insufficiency (<50 nmol/l). We estimate that 52 nmol/l was the threshold concentration for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D above which no further suppression of PTH occurred. Below and above this concentration the slopes of the regression lines were -0.18 (different from 0; P=0.003) and -0.01 (P=0.775), respectively. The relation between vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone concentration did not differ between women with low, medium or high calcium intakes (P=0.611); however, even in the highest tertile of calcium intake, mean calcium intake was only 657 mg/d.

    CONCLUSION: On the basis of maximal suppression of PTH we estimate an optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of approximately 50 nmol/l. Many women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D below this concentration and may benefit from improved vitamin D status.

  8. Visvanathan R, Zaiton A, Mohd Sidik S, Muhamad YA
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2005 Mar;59(3):318-24.
    PMID: 15523487
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the: (1) prevalence of undernutrition as determined by the 'DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist' (NHC) and (2) factors independently associated with undernutrition among the older residents of these publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia.
    DESIGN: A total of 1081 elderly people (59%M) over the age of 60 y were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well-being.
    SETTING: Shelter homes, Peninsular Malaysia.
    RESULTS: In all, 41.4% (n = 447) were nourished (score <3), 32.1% (n = 347) at moderate risk (score between 3 and 5) and 26.6% (n = 287) were at high risk of undernutrition (score>5) according to the NHC. A large proportion of subjects were underweight with 14.3% of subjects recording a low body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 and a further 18.2% recording a BMI between 18.5 and 20 kg/m2. The residential geriatric depression score (GDS-12R) (relative risk (RR) = 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.05); P = 0.002) and the number of illnesses (RR = 1.14 (95% CI 1.07-1.21); P < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with nutritional risk (NHC score > or = 3). Using a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 as an objective marker for nutritional risk, the NHC was shown to have a sensitivity of 66.4% (95% CI 58.0-74.2%), specificity of 42.7% (95% CI 39.3-46.1%), positive predictive value of 16.2% (95% CI 13.3-19.5%) and a negative predictive value of 88.4% (95% CI 84.9-91.4%).
    CONCLUSIONS: Many elderly people residing in publicly funded shelter homes in Malaysia may be at-risk of undernutrition, and were underweight. The NHC is better used as an awareness tool rather than as a screening tool.
  9. Shariff ZM, Khor GL
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2005 Sep;59(9):1049-58.
    PMID: 16015271
    The study examined nutritional outcomes related to body fat accumulation of food insecurity among women from selected rural communities in Malaysia.
  10. Srichan W, Thasanasuwan W, Kijboonchoo K, Rojroongwasinkul N, Wimonpeerapattana W, Khouw I, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2016 08;70(8):894-7.
    PMID: 26508460 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.180
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is used to measure bone quality and is known to be safe, radiation free and relatively inexpensive compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) that is considered the gold standard for bone status assessments. However, there is no consensus regarding the validity of QUS for measuring bone status. The aim of this study was to compare QUS and DXA in assessing bone status in Thai children.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 181 Thai children (90 boys and 91 girls) aged 6 to 12 years were recruited. Bone status was measured by two different techniques in terms of the speed of sound (SOS) using QUS and bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. Calcium intake was assessed by 24 h diet recall. Pearson's correlation, κ-statistic and Bland and Altman analysis were used to assess the agreement between the methods.

    RESULTS: There was no correlation between the two different techniques. Mean difference (s.d.) of the Z-scores of BMD and SOS was -0.61 (1.27) that was different from zero (P<0.05). Tertiles of Z-scores of BMD and QUS showed low agreement (κ 0.022, P=0.677) and the limits of agreement in Bland and Altman statistics were wide.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although QUS is easy and convenient to use, the SOS measurements at the radius seem not appropriate for assessing bone quality status.

  11. Voon PT, Ng TK, Lee VK, Nesaretnam K
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2015 Jun;69(6):712-6.
    PMID: 25804278 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.26
    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults.
  12. Zhang ZW, Shimbo S, Miyake K, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 1999 Mar;53(3):226-32.
    PMID: 10201805
    To examine the accuracy of food composition table (FCT)-based estimation of dietary nutrient element intake in reference to the instrumental measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
  13. Shimbo S, Zhang ZW, Miyake K, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 1999 Mar;53(3):233-8.
    PMID: 10201806
    To examine the accuracy of food composition table (FCT)-based estimation of dietary nutrient element intake in reference to the instrumental measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as an extension of the first part of this study.
  14. Li D, Zhang H, Hsu-Hage BH, Wahlqvist ML, Sinclair AJ
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2001 Dec;55(12):1036-42.
    PMID: 11781668
    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) platelet phospholipid (PL) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition in subjects who were the Melbourne Chinese migrants, compared with those who were the Melbourne Caucasians and (2) the relationship between platelet PL PUFA and intake of fish, meat and PUFA.
  15. Strickland SS, Ulijaszek SJ
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 1994 Nov;48 Suppl 3:S98-108; discussion S108-9.
    PMID: 7843165
    This paper reports findings of a cross-sectional anthropometric survey of 447 men and 564 women aged > 18 years of the Iban tribe in rural Sarawak. The percentage of each approximately 10 year cohort with body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) < 18.5 increased progressively with age > 40 years in both sexes. BMI and arm-muscle plus bone cross-sectional area (AMBA) were influenced significantly by reported single symptoms in men and two concurrent symptoms in women. Sensitivity of BMI < 18.5 for identifying those reporting symptoms of illness was 21% in men and 29% in women. Independently of illness effects, values of stature, BMI and AMBA in men, and stature alone in women, were significantly greater in those farming plots with the shortest time left fallow, suggesting their comparative success. The BMI of men may reflect primarily their economic activities, while that of women their experience of illness; the AMBA may also be a better overall index of health than BMI in this population.
  16. Strickland SS, Ulijaszek SJ
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 1993 Jan;47(1):9-19.
    PMID: 8422876
    Classifications of adult low energy nutritional status based on the Quetelet or body mass index (weight/height2) have often assumed independence of age and sex. This paper reports findings of a study of 447 men and 564 women aged over 18 years and belonging to the Iban tribe of central Sarawak, East Malaysia. BMI and fat-free mass fell markedly in both sexes, and fat mass in women but not men, after about 40 years of age. In men over age 40, and women aged 18-40, BMI was sensitive to reported morbidity. For subjects aged over 40 years, BMI was related to morbidity independently of age effects in men, and to age alone in women. These findings suggest that the functional significance of low BMI differs between the sexes and with age.
  17. Wells JC, Strickland SS
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 1996 Oct;50(10):668-71.
    PMID: 8909933
    To evaluate the effect of different methods (plateau or back extrapolation) of calculating total body water (TBW) from deuterium dilution in an environment characterised by high water turnover. The back extrapolation model is assumed to be more accurate when water turnover is high.
  18. Che HL, Kanthimathi MS, Loganathan R, Yuen KH, Tan AT, Selvaduray KR, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2017 01;71(1):107-114.
    PMID: 27759074 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.200
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study. The subjects were administered a single dose of 200 mg or 400 mg γδ-T3 emulsions or placebo incorporated into a glass of strawberry-flavored milkshake, consumed together with a high-fat muffin. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after meal intake.

    RESULTS: Plasma vitamin E levels reflected the absorption of γδ-T3 after treatments. Postprandial changes in serum C-peptide, serum insulin, plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and adiponectin did not differ between treatments, with women displaying delayed increase in the aforementioned markers. No significant difference between treatments was observed for plasma cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and thrombogenic markers (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and D-dimer).

    CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of a single dose of γδ-T3 did not change the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

  19. Tee ES, Yap RWK
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2017 07;71(7):844-849.
    PMID: 28513624 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.44
    This review discussed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Malaysia and the associated major risk factors, namely overweight/obesity, dietary practices and physical activity in both adults and school children. Detailed analyses of such information will provide crucial information for the formulation and implementation of programmes for the control and prevention of T2DM in the country. National studies from 1996-2015, and other recent nation-wide studies were referred to. The current prevalence of DM in 2015 is 17.5%, over double since 1996. Females, older age group, Indians, and urban residents had the highest risk of DM. The combined prevalence of overweight/obesity in 2015 is 47.7% for adults. Adults did not achieve the recommended intakes for majority of the foods groups in the Malaysian Food Pyramid especially fruits and vegetables. Adults also had moderate physical activity level. Three nation-wide studies showed a prevalence ranging from 27 to 31% for combined overweight/obesity in school children. The prevalence was higher among boys, primary school age, Indian ethnicity, and even rural children are not spared. Physical activity level was also low among school children. There must be serious systematic implementation of action plans to combat the high prevalence of diabetes and associated risk factors.
  20. Loganathan R, Vethakkan SR, Radhakrishnan AK, Razak GA, Kim-Tiu T
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2019 04;73(4):609-616.
    PMID: 29946115 DOI: 10.1038/s41430-018-0236-5
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The consumption of antioxidant-rich cooking oil such as red palm olein may be cardioprotective from the perspective of subclinical inflammation and endothelial function.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a crossover design, we conducted a randomised controlled trial in 53 free-living high-risk abdominally overweight subjects, comparing the effects of incorporating red palm olein (with palm olein as control) in a supervised isocaloric 2100 kcal diet of 30% en fat, two-thirds (45 g/day) of which were derived from the test oil for a period of 6 weeks each.

    RESULTS: We did not observe a significant change in interleukin-6 (IL-6), in parallel with other pro-inflammatory (tumour necrosis factor-β, interleukin-1β, IL-1β, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP) and endothelial function (soluble intercellular adhesion molecules, sICAM, soluble intravascular adhesion molecules, sVCAM) parameters. Interestingly, we observed a significant reduction in oxidised LDL levels (P 

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