SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20-50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose.
RESULTS: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0-2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.
SETTING: Jakarta, Indonesia and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 504 non-pregnant women 18-40 years.
MAIN MEASURES: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH.
RESULTS: The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 48 nmol/l. Less than 1% of women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency (<17.5 nmol/l); whereas, over 60% of women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicative of insufficiency (<50 nmol/l). We estimate that 52 nmol/l was the threshold concentration for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D above which no further suppression of PTH occurred. Below and above this concentration the slopes of the regression lines were -0.18 (different from 0; P=0.003) and -0.01 (P=0.775), respectively. The relation between vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone concentration did not differ between women with low, medium or high calcium intakes (P=0.611); however, even in the highest tertile of calcium intake, mean calcium intake was only 657 mg/d.
CONCLUSION: On the basis of maximal suppression of PTH we estimate an optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of approximately 50 nmol/l. Many women had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D below this concentration and may benefit from improved vitamin D status.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 181 Thai children (90 boys and 91 girls) aged 6 to 12 years were recruited. Bone status was measured by two different techniques in terms of the speed of sound (SOS) using QUS and bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. Calcium intake was assessed by 24 h diet recall. Pearson's correlation, κ-statistic and Bland and Altman analysis were used to assess the agreement between the methods.
RESULTS: There was no correlation between the two different techniques. Mean difference (s.d.) of the Z-scores of BMD and SOS was -0.61 (1.27) that was different from zero (P<0.05). Tertiles of Z-scores of BMD and QUS showed low agreement (κ 0.022, P=0.677) and the limits of agreement in Bland and Altman statistics were wide.
CONCLUSIONS: Although QUS is easy and convenient to use, the SOS measurements at the radius seem not appropriate for assessing bone quality status.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study. The subjects were administered a single dose of 200 mg or 400 mg γδ-T3 emulsions or placebo incorporated into a glass of strawberry-flavored milkshake, consumed together with a high-fat muffin. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after meal intake.
RESULTS: Plasma vitamin E levels reflected the absorption of γδ-T3 after treatments. Postprandial changes in serum C-peptide, serum insulin, plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and adiponectin did not differ between treatments, with women displaying delayed increase in the aforementioned markers. No significant difference between treatments was observed for plasma cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and thrombogenic markers (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and D-dimer).
CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of a single dose of γδ-T3 did not change the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a crossover design, we conducted a randomised controlled trial in 53 free-living high-risk abdominally overweight subjects, comparing the effects of incorporating red palm olein (with palm olein as control) in a supervised isocaloric 2100 kcal diet of 30% en fat, two-thirds (45 g/day) of which were derived from the test oil for a period of 6 weeks each.
RESULTS: We did not observe a significant change in interleukin-6 (IL-6), in parallel with other pro-inflammatory (tumour necrosis factor-β, interleukin-1β, IL-1β, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP) and endothelial function (soluble intercellular adhesion molecules, sICAM, soluble intravascular adhesion molecules, sVCAM) parameters. Interestingly, we observed a significant reduction in oxidised LDL levels (P