Tissue engineering applies the principle of engineering and life sciences towards the development of biological substitute that restore, maintain or improve tissue or organ function. Scientists grow tissues or organs in vitro and implant them when the body is unable to prompt into healing itself. This presentation aims to highlight the potential clinical application of engineered tissues being researched on at the Tissue Engineering Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.
Patient own fibrin may act as the safest, cheapest and immediate available biodegradable scaffold material in clinical 1 tissue engineering. This study investigated the feasibility of using patient own fibrin isolated from whole blood to construct a new human cartilage, skin and bone. Constructed in vitro tissues were implanted on the dorsal part of the nude mice for in vivo maturation. After 8 weeks of implantation, the engineered tissues were removed for histological analysis. Our results demonstrated autologous fibrin has great potential as clinical scaffold material to construct various human tissues.
The emergence of tissue engineering and stem cell research has created a tremendous response amongst scientist in Malaysia. However, despite the enthusiastic to embark on the research we have to carefully divert the research towards our needs. This is due to our responsibility to address the mounting problem of communicable diseases here and a very limited funding. As commercialization is a key objective the combination of products towards treating or diagnosing communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing country is another important factor. The discussion here is mainly on the evolution of tissue engineering in Malaysia and taking a model of tissue engineering in otolaryngology.
Our preliminary results indicated that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) hybrid scaffold promoted early chondrogenesis of articular cartilage constructs in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo cartilaginous tissue formation by chondrocyte-seeded fibrin/PLGA hybrid scaffolds. PLGA scaffolds were soaked carefully, in chondrocyte-fibrin suspension, and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes were used as a control. Resulting constructs were implanted subcutaneously, at the dorsum of nude mice, for 4 weeks. Macroscopic observation, histological evaluation, gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. Cartilaginous tissue formation in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs was confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrices. Chondrogenic properties were further demonstrated by the expression of gene encoded cartilage-specific markers, collagen type II and aggrecan core protein. The sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs was higher than in the PLGA group. In conclusion, fibrin/PLGA hybrid scaffold promotes cartilaginous tissue formation in vivo and may serve as a potential cell delivery vehicle and a structural basis for articular cartilage tissue-engineering.
A Malaysian family with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhydrosis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms of chronic ulcers, joint deformities, malunited fractures, anhydrosis, and learning disabilities. We detected a compound heterozygous mutation in exon 16: V709L from the mother and G718S from the father. Two novel mutations were identified: at amino acid 709, a change of G to C at nucleotide 2209 (approximately 2209G to C) causing a valine to leucine substitution (V709L), and at amino acid 718, a change of G to A at nucleotide 2236 (approximately 2236G to A) causing a glycine to serine substitution (G718S). Polymorphisms identified were at nucleotides approximately 2113G to C and approximately 2176T to C.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altered thyroid status on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD type 1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD type 2) bioactivity in rat kidney and colon. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250 g) were treated with either L-thyroxine (T4) or propylthiouracil (PTU) for 4 weeks. Blood were then analysed for serum thyroxine, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). The kidneys and colon were assayed for 11beta-HSD type 1 and 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity. In T4 treated rats the serum thyroxine was significantly elevated (p<0.05) whilst PTU decreased serum thyroxine significantly (p<0.001) compared to controls. Serum Na+ and K+ were within normal limits. There were no significant changes in 11beta-HSD type 1 bioactivity in both treatment groups compared to controls. However, the 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity in rats given thyroxine was significantly higher in the colon (p<0.003) compared to controls. We conclude that altered thyroid status had no effect on 11beta-HSD type 1 bioactivity but 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity was elevated in the colon of rats given supplementary thyroxine.
A cross-sectional screening test was done to determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion amongst, preschool children in two district in Malaysia, namely Kuala Lumpur an urban district and Kuala Selangor a rural district. It involved 1097 preschool children aged between 5 and 6 years old. Presence of otitis media effusion (OME) is based on abnormal otoscopic finding, Type B tympanogram and absence of ipsilateral acoustical reflex. The overall prevalence rate of OME was 13.8%. The prevalence in Kuala Lumpur was 17.9%, while in Kuala Selangor it was 9.48%. Bottle feeding during infancy and high socioeconomic status of the parents was statistically associated with higher incidence of OME. Other factors such as race, premature delivery, passive smoking, allergy, asthma and family size, had no influence on the prevalence of otitis media with effusion.
In the present study in vitro expansion of human keratinocytes by supplementing dermal fibroblasts conditioned medium (DFCM) has been reported. Effect of two different DFCM acquired by culturing fibroblasts in keratinocyte-specific medium (defined keratinocytes serum free medium, DFCM-DKSFM) and fibroblast-specific serum free medium (F12: DMEM nutrient mix, DFCM-FD) have been compared. Growth kinetics of keratinocytes in terms of efficiency of cell attachment, expansion index, apparent specific growth rate and growth potential at the end of culture was evaluated in culture supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD in comparison with control i.e. DKSFM only. Results indicated that supplementation of DFCM caused significant increase in keratinocyte attachment. Efficiency of keratinocyte attachment in culture supplemented with bFCM-DKSFM was significantly higher compared to those cultured in DFCM-FD and DKSFM. In addition, the expansion index of keratinocytes in cultures supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD were 3.7 and 2.2 times higher than that of control condition even though the apparent growth rate and proliferative potential was found significantly lower. These results suggested that supplementation of DFCM enhanced expansion of keratinocyte by increasing efficiency of cell attachment, and DFCM-DKSFM provided suitable condition for in vitro expansion of keratinocytes compared to DFCM-FD and control condition.
Monolayer culture expansion remains as a fundamental step to acquire sufficient number of cells for 3D constructs formation. It has been well-documented that cell expansion is however accompanied by cellular dedifferentiation. In order to promote cell growth and circumvent cellular dedifferentiation, we evaluated the effects of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 (TGF-β2), Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) combination on articular chondrocytes culture and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct formation. Chondrocytes were serially cultured in: (1) F12:DMEM+10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS) with growth factors (FD10GFs), (2) F12:DMEM+2%FBS with the growth factors (FD2GFs) and, (3) F12:DMEM+10%FBS without growth factors (FD) as control. Cultured chondrocytes were evaluated by means of growth kinetics parameters, cell cycle analysis, quantitative phenotypic expression of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein sox-9 and collagen type I and, immunochemistry technique. Harvested chondrocytes were incorporated with plasma-derived fibrin and were polymerized to form the 3D constructs and implanted subcutaneously at the dorsum of athymic nude mice for eight (8) weeks. Resulted constructs were assigned for gross inspections and microscopic evaluation using standard histochemicals staining, immunochemistry technique and, quantitative phenotypic expression of cartilage markers to reassure cartilaginous tissue formation. Growth kinetics performance of chondrocytes cultured in three (3) types of culture media from the most to least was in the following order: FD10GFs>FD2GFs>FD. Following growth kinetics analysis, we decided to use FD10GFs and FD (control) for further evaluation and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs formation. Chondrocytes cultured in FD10GFs preserved the normal diploid state (2c) with no evidence of aneuploidy, haploidy or tetraploidy. Expression of cartilage-specific markers namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9 were significantly higher in FD10GFs when compared to control. After implantation, 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs exhibited firm, white, smooth and glistening cartilage-like properties. FD10GFs constructs formed better quality cartilage-like tissue than FD constructs in term of overall cartilaginous tissue formation, cells organization and extracellular matrix distribution in the specimens. Cartilaginous tissue formation was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan was confirmed by positive Safranin O staining. Collagen type II exhibited immunopositivity at the pericellular and inter-territorial matrix area. Chondrogenic properties of the construct were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox9. In conclusion, FD10GFs promotes the proliferation of chondrocytes and formation of good quality 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs which may have potential use of matrix-induced cell implantation.
This study aimed to compare the effects of three different media on the in vivo chondrogenesis of sheep bone marrow stem cells (BMSC). Sheep BMSC were cultured in F12:DMEM + 10% FBS, chondrogenic medium containing 5ng/ml TGF,3 + 50ng/ml IGF-1 and UKM-MECC for three weeks. The cultured cells were then harvested for construct formation with fibrin. Constructed tissues were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for in vivo development. Cell aggregates were formed in both chondrogenic medium and UKM-MECC demonstrated the early chondrogenesis process. After five weeks of in vivo development, both chondrogenic medium and UKM-MECC promoted cartilage matrix synthesis confirmed by Safranin O staining.
Bone marrow derived Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated as an alternative source for tissue engineering of peripheral nerves. Human MSCs were subjected to a series of treatment with a reducing agent, retinoic acid and a combination of trophic factors. This treated MSCs differentiated into Schwann cells were characterized in vitro via flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemically. In contrast to untreated MSCs, differentiated MSCs expressed Schwann cell markers in vitro, as we confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemically. These results suggest that human MSCs can be induced to be a substitute for Schwann cells that may be applied for nerve regeneration since it is difficult to grow Schwann cells in vitro.
The angiogenic potential of native skin (NS), keratinocytes single skin equivalent (SSE-K), fibroblasts single skin equivalent (SSE-F) and bilayered skin equivalent secreting angiogenic growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the in vitro systems at 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days was compared using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Bilayered skin equivalent exhibit highest release of growth factors within 24 hours to 7 days of culture compared to NS, SSE-K and SSE-F. This proved the potential of bilayered skin equivalent in producing and sustaining growth factors release to enhance angiogenesis, fibroblasts proliferation, matrix deposition, migration and growth of keratinocytes.
Hearing loss is a common sensory deficit in humans. The hearing loss may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed, syndromic or nonsyndromic, prelingual or postlingual. Due to the complexity of the hearing mechanism, it is not surprising that several hundred genes might be involved in causing hereditary hearing loss. There are at least 82 chromosomal loci that have been identified so far which are associated with the most common type of deafness--non-syndromic deafness. However, there are still many more which remained to be discovered. Here, we report the mapping of a locus for autosomal recessive, non-syndromic deafness in a family in Malaysia. The investigated family (AC) consists of three generations--parents who are deceased, nine affected and seven unaffected children and grandchildren. The deafness was deduced to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner with 70% penetrance. Recombination frequencies were assumed to be equal for both males and females. Using two-point lod score analysis (MLINK), a maximum lod score of 2.48 at 0% recombinant (Z = 2.48, theta = 0%) was obtained for the interval D14S63-D14S74. The haplotype analysis defined a 14.38 centiMorgan critical region around marker D14S258 on chromosome 14q23.2-q24.3. There are 16 candidate genes identified with positive expression in human cochlear and each has great potential of being the deaf gene responsible in causing non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss in this particular family. Hopefully, by understanding the role of genetics in deafness, early interventional strategies can be undertaken to improve the life of the deaf community.
The objectives of this study were to determine the optimum concentration of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in foetal bovine serum (FBS) or human serum (HS) supplemented medium for adult human nasal septum chondrocyte culture and to evaluate the potential of cartilage regeneration.
Bone marrow harvested by aspiration contains connective tissue progenitor cells which can be selectively isolated and induced to express bone phenotype in vitro. The osteoblastic progenitor can be estimated by counting the number of cells attach using the haemacytometer. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that human aging is associated with a significant change on the number of osteoblastic progenitors in the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were harvested from 38 patients, 14 men (age 11-70) and 24 women (age 10-70) and cultured in F12: DMEM (1:1). In total 15 bone marrow samples have been isolated from patients above 40 years old (men/women) of age. Fourteen (93.3%) of this samples failed to proliferate. Only one (6.7%) bone marrow sample from a male patient, aged 59 years old was successfully cultured. Seventy percent (16/23) of the samples from patient below than 40 years old were successfully cultured. However, our observation on the survival rate for cells of different gender from patient below 40 years old does not indicate any significant difference. From this study, we conclude that the growth of bone marrow stromal cells possibly for bone engineering is better from bone marrow aspirates of younger patient.
Skin is the largest organ in human system and plays a vital role as a barrier against environment and pathogens. Skin regeneration is important in tissue engineering especially in cases of chronic wounds. With the tissue engineering technology, these skins equivalent have been use clinically to repair burns and wounds. Consented redundant skin samples were obtained from patients aged 9 to 65 years old. Skin samples were digested with dispase, thus separating the epidermis and the dermis layer. The epidermis layer was trypsinized and cultured in DKSFM in 6-well plate at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. Once confluent, the culture were trypsinized and the cells were pooled. Cells were counted using haemacytometer. Doubling time and viability were calculated and analysed. From the result, we conclude that doubling time and viability of in vitro keratinocytes cultured in DKSFM media is not age dependant.
We have previously formulated an optimized human chondrocytes growth medium based on 2% fetal bovine serum supplementation. For clinical usage, the animal serum must be replaced by patient own serum. We investigated the effects of human serum concentration for human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage reconstruction. Human serum demonstrated a dose dependent manner in promoting chondrocytes growth and cartilage engineering.
The regulation roles of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFbeta2) in human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage engineering was investigated in this study. The role of IGF-1 with bFGF and TGFbeta2 was investigated by measuring chondrocyte growth kinetic and collagen genes expression. IGF-1 together with bFGF and TGFbeta2 promote cartilage tissue engineering, increase type II collagen expression and enhance the histological features of engineered cartilage.
This study was to investigate the effects of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) on the proliferation and quantitative gene expression of adult human nasal septum chondrocytes in monolayer culture expansion and the formation of tissue engineered hyaline cartilage. Effects of ITS on human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture expansion and gene expression were evaluated in various culture media either added with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 1 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor plus 1 ng/mL transforming growth factor or both serum and growth factors supplementation in comparison with medium added with 10%FBS. Chondrocytes cultured in medium added with 2% fetal bovine serum and growth factors either supplemented with or without ITS were then mixed with pluronic F-127 hydrogel for in vivo tissue engineered cartilage formation in nude mice model. Engineered tissues were removed after 8 weeks of implantation and evaluated with histological staining, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and quantitative gene expression analysis. ITS promoted human chondrocytes proliferation and reduced chondrocytes dedifferentiation in media supplemented with serum and growth factors. ITS with 2% FBS and growth factors provided 15-fold increased in chondrocytes number by the end of the culture period compared to the standard culture medium used in chondrocytes culture (medium added with 10% FBS). Engineered tissue resulted from ITS supplementation demonstrated higher quality of cartilage formation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the benefits of ITS supplementation in human chondrocytes monolayer culture and tissue engineering cartilage formation.