Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is aggressive in children. The condition in children differs to that in adults and to skeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. We report on a 9-year-old girl with EMC in her left thigh. She underwent above-knee amputation. Five months later, a small mass was noted at the right lower lobe of the lung. The patient underwent one course of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide chemotherapy, followed by resection of the mass and 8 more courses of chemotherapy. At the 2-year follow-up, she was in remission radiologically.
PURPOSE. To evaluate the insertion torque and pullout strength of pedicle screws with or without repositioning. METHODS. 20 fresh porcine lumbar vertebrae of similar size were used. The entry point was at the site just lateral and distal to the superior facet joint of the vertebra, and to a depth of 35 mm. A 6.2-mm-diameter, 35-mm-long pedicle screw was inserted parallel to the superior end plate on one side as control. On the other side, an identical screw was first inserted 10º caudal to the superior end plate, and then repositioned parallel to the superior end plate. The insertional torque and pullout strength were measured. RESULTS. Three of the specimens were excluded owing to pedicle fractures during the pullout test. Repositioned pedicle screws were significantly weaker than controls in terms of the maximum insertional torque (3.20 ± 0.28 vs. 2.04 ± 0.28 Nm, 36% difference, p<0.01) and pullout strength (1664 ± 378 vs.1391 ± 295 N, p<0.01). CONCLUSION. Repositioning pedicle screws should be avoided, especially when the pedicle wall is breached. If repositioning is deemed necessary, augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate or a screw with a larger diameter should be considered.
We report 2 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia who underwent intramedullary Rush rod transfixation through the ankle joint following refracture and nonunion of vascularised fibular grafting 6 and 8 months earlier. After 9 and 5 years, both Rush rods were broken at the level of the ankle joints, while the reconstructed area was solidly united. The growth of the distal tibia increased the distance of the tips of the broken rod and hence the ankle joint motion. The broken tips may damage the articular cartilage and result in valgus deformity of the ankle and limb length discrepancy.
We report a case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in a 9-year-old girl. She presented with a 9-month history of gradually worsening pain and swelling in her left foot. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed but the symptoms persisted. She underwent curettage through a small oval corticotomy window on the first metatarsal bone. The pain and swelling improved promptly and she was able to walk without pain 2 weeks later. Curettage enabled rapid symptomatic relief and induced remission, with little risk of complications.
A 56-year-old man became quadriplegic, bed bound, and carer-dependent secondary to cervical osteomyelitis. Three years later, he presented with generalised spasticity, crouched posture, and a large sacral pressure sore. The severe spasticity in his hips and knees prevented ischial sitting. Injections of botulinum toxin type A to both hamstrings and gastrosoleuii controlled the flexor spasticity of his lower limbs and facilitated rehabilitation and wound healing through proper positioning, wound care, stretching, and weight-bearing exercises. A few weeks later, the patient could better position himself in bed (prone lying) and on his wheelchair (ischial sitting). His spasm-related pain lessened and his mobility and activities of daily living improved. The sacral pressure sore healed completely a few months later. The patient could sleep better, feed with set-up and adaptive aids, groom, dress, and transfer himself with minimal assistance. The effects of botulinum toxin extended beyond just spasticity reduction. His upper extremity function, mobility, and social well-being were all improved through better positioning.
To evaluate the effect of autologous human serum (AHS) versus pooled human serum (PHS) versus foetal bovine serum (FBS) for growth of articular chondrocytes and formation of chondrocytefibrin constructs.
Sacral tumours often present surgical resection and reconstruction challenges. Wide resections result in large sacral defects and neoadjuvant radiotherapy impairs wound healing. The wounds need to be covered with bulky, well-vascularised, healthy tissues. We present 2 cases where large sacral defects were reconstructed following tumour resection. Both defects were reconstructed with inferiorly based, transpelvic, pedicled vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. This is a robust flap and carries a well-vascularised muscle bulk and skin paddle. The donor site is distant from the lesion site and is thus unaffected by both the resection and radiotherapy. This is a useful flap for reconstructing large sacral defects.