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  1. Santhi VA, Mustafa AM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Feb;185(2):1541-54.
    PMID: 22552495 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2649-2
    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.
  2. Santhi VA, Hairin T, Mustafa AM
    Chemosphere, 2012 Mar;86(10):1066-71.
    PMID: 22197311 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.063
    A study to assess the level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and bisphenol A (BPA) in edible marine biota collected from coastal waters of Malaysia was conducted using GC-MS and SPE extraction. An analytical method was developed and validated to measure the level of 15 OCPs and BPA simultaneously from five selected marine species. It was observed that some samples had low levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and p,p'- DDD ranging from 0.50 ng g(-1) to 22.49 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w) but significantly elevated level of endosulfan I was detected in a stingray sample at 2880 ng g(-1) d.w. BPA was detected in 31 out of 57 samples with concentration ranging from below quantification level (LOQ: 3 ng g(-1)) to 729 ng g(-1) d.w. The presence of OCPs is most likely from past use although there is also indication of illegal use in recent times. The study also reveals that BPA is more widely distributed in coastal species caught off the coast of the most developed state. The potential health risk from dietary intakes of OCPs and BPA from the analysed fish species was negligible.
  3. Santhi VA, Sakai N, Ahmad ED, Mustafa AM
    Sci Total Environ, 2012 Jun 15;427-428:332-8.
    PMID: 22578698 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.041
    This study investigated the level of bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water used as potable water, drinking water (tap and bottled mineral water) and human plasma in the Langat River basin, Malaysia. BPA was present in 93% of the surface water samples at levels ranging from below limit of quantification (LOQ; 1.3 ng/L) to 215 ng/L while six fold higher levels were detected in samples collected near industrial and municipal sewage treatment plant outlets. Low levels of BPA were detected in most of the drinking water samples. BPA in tap water ranged from 3.5 to 59.8 ng/L with the highest levels detected in samples collected from taps connected to PVC pipes and water filter devices. Bottled mineral water had lower levels of BPA (3.3±2.6 ng/L) although samples stored in poor storage condition had significantly higher levels (11.3±5.3 ng/L). Meanwhile, only 17% of the plasma samples had detectable levels of BPA ranging from 0.81 to 3.65 ng/mL. The study shows that BPA is a ubiquitous contaminant in surface, tap and bottled mineral water. However, exposure to BPA from drinking water is very low and is less than 0.01% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI).
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