Three new variants of acidic proline-rich proteins (At, Au, Aw) were found in human parotid saliva by isoelectric focusing and basic gel electrophoresis. Electrophoretic comparison of the purified proteins and their tryptic peptides suggested minor charge and size differences from other acidic PRPs. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that the At and Aw proteins are allelic products of the PRH1 locus. Gene frequencies of the At productive allele (PRH1(6)) in Japanese, Chinese, and Malays were 0.008, 0.012, and 0.004, respectively. The Au protein was also found in Japanese (2 in 746 samples), Chinese (1 in 215 samples), and Malays (1 in 220 samples), however, the Aw protein was found only in one Japanese (n = 746). These three proteins were not found in 106 Indian subjects.